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A. S4, Model selection testing for the effects of cost of reproduction on adult female survival (A), breeding probability (B), kid spring survival (C), kid summer survival (D) during step 1. Np: number of parameters

. ?aicc, AICc between the tested model and the model with the lowest AICc, and AICc weight

A. , Adult female survival (S) B. Breeding probabilities (BP)

C. , Kid spring survival (SprS) D. Kid summer survival (SumS)

, Annexes