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Utilisation de matériaux bois intelligents pour la gestion durable des infrastructures

Abstract : For fifteen years, we restart to construct with wood, and particularly with glulam to respond to the new challenges imposed by the issues of sustainable development. However, degradation issues related to moisture content (MC) or wetting/drying cycles limit the development of timber structures. As a result, the MC monitoring in timber structures becomes a critical issue. Today, several solutions exist but they do not allow a local monitoring in the lamellas of glulam. Such a solution would improve the prediction of the service life of timber structures. In the light of this observation, we proposed to transform glulam into "smart material" by embedding a MC monitoring system in the lamellas, and this, considering the major constraints of fabrication of this material (small glue line thickness, important bonding pressure, etc.). To achieve this, we have conducted a bibliographic research, in order to select the monitoring methods which can satisfy these constraints. According to this research, two technologies turn out to be interesting: the electrical measurements and the ultrasonic measurements. Several measurement configurations were proposed and tested in this PhD work. Thereafter, we conducted preliminary tests to make sure of the good functionality of these measurement configurations, and also to verify the behavior of sensors throughout the glulam fabrication process. Afterwards, we moistened the specimens with two different moistening protocols in order to verify the feasibility of MC monitoring with embedded sensors. Results showed that all the measurement configurations are operational for the MC monitoring in glulam specimens. Moreover, for electrical measurements, our results show that we can adopt almost the same calibration models for the MC monitoring by resistive measurements, no matter the type of sensors used. Furthermore, it is possible to obtain complementary information by the realization of the resistive and capacitive measurements at the same time, using surface electrodes. Regarding the ultrasonic measurements, we have obtained the sensibility curves in frequency of several families of piezoelectric film sensors. On the other hand, the influence of bonding pressure and of sensor distance on the electrical/ultrasonic measurements was also investigated in this study. Future studies will consist in using these measurement configurations to perform in situ monitoring in timber structures, and also to establish a link between the durability of glulam structures and the wetting/drying cycles in order to predict the service life of timber structures.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01949792, version 1

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Hang Li. Utilisation de matériaux bois intelligents pour la gestion durable des infrastructures. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30288⟩. ⟨tel-01949792⟩

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