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Etude des conditions physique et chimique de l'altération hydrothermale dans les astéroïdes carbonés de type C

Abstract : Chondrites are leftover solids from the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk that enable for its primordial conditions to be studied. However, many chondrites have seen their mineralogy modified by the circulation of fluids during hydrothermal alteration events, thereby blurring the primordial informations retained in it. CM carbonaceous chondrites have been extensively studied, mainly because of the various episodes and extent of hydrothermal alteration they exhibit. The understanding of the evolution of water and the influence of alteration on organic matter in those asteroids is essential as they might be the source of life on Earth. In order to better understand the geochemical conditions and the chronology of this process in carbonaceous asteroids, we focused this project on CM chondrites and the secondary phases they contain. We developped a methodology to estimate the precipitation temperatures of carbonates in CM chondrites relying only on in situ measurements of their O-isotopic composition. Our results yield precipitation temperatures in a larger range than what has previsouly been estimated, i.e. from -50 to approximatively 300°C with an average temperature of 113 +/- 54°C (2σ). To further our study of the geochemical conditions of hydrothermal alteration we extensively studied the CM of Boriskino. The peculiar texture of this meteorite, due to its numerous clasts with sharp boundaries and their various degrees of aqueous alteration, enable to investigate the reccurent question of a genetic link between brecciation and aqueous alteration. Using the same methodology as in our first project we concluded that temperatures in which the process took place could not account for the various extent of aqueous alteration that we observe. In addition, Our work suggest that aqueous alteration in this chondrite was discontinuous and preceeded brecciationand that instead the initial quantity of accreted ice could be the controlling parameter of aqueous alteration. However, this study neglect the contribution of the duration of exposure of the rock to the fluid to the extent of aqueous alteration. Therefore, our last project was to determine the age of carbonates in several CM chondrites of various degrees of aqueous alteration. The datation of these minerals in chondrites relies on the radiochronometer 53Mn-53Cr. However, the lack of a suitable carbonate standard for these SIMS analyses pushed us to synthetize carbonates with the adequat cristallinity and chemical composition first. To do so, we experimentated at high pressure and high temperature using a piston-cylinder apparatus.
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Maximilien Verdier-Paoletti. Etude des conditions physique et chimique de l'altération hydrothermale dans les astéroïdes carbonés de type C. Géochimie. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS; Centre de recherches pétrographiques et géochimiques (Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MNHN0020⟩. ⟨tel-01948886⟩

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