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Morphogenesis at the shoot Apical Meristem

Abstract : The process of morphogenesis is driven by cell division and expansion, which are controlled ina differential manner among cell types and tissues. In plants, the above ground organs arecontinuously produced by the shoot apical meristem (SAM), where the initiation of newprimordia is triggered by the local accumulation of the plant hormone auxin. We study theprocess of morphogenesis in the inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana, where flowers areformed in a regular pattern from the SAM.The DNA-binding auxin response factor ARF5/MP plays a central role in the initiation offlowers. After its activation, it induces the expression of LEAFY, AINTEGUMENTA andAINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 transcription factors necessary for the specification of floralidentity and proliferative growth. However, at the cellular level, the initiation of lateraloutgrowths depends on regional differences in growth. In plant cells, these processes areregulated via modifications of the cell wall. Auxin and its downstream targets are also involvedin these processes, by activating changes in the dynamics of the cortical microtubules, whichresult in changes in growth direction. Auxin also slightly reduces wall rigidity prior to organoutgrowth in the SAM, which results in changes in growth rate. This is correlated with thetranscriptional activation of a number of cell wall modifying genes.Thus, auxin signaling regulates primordium initiation by integrating the activation of atranscriptional regulatory network and both the stiffness and anisotropy of the cell wall, whichdirectly influence the rate and direction of growth.The findings of this thesis provide evidence indicating that the mechanisms of organ initiationat the SAM involve feedbacks where changes in the local properties of the cell wall influencethe molecular regulation of the transcriptional regulatory network. Our results suggest that thismight require the influence from other hormones, different from auxin, that funnel theinitiation of lateral outgrowths.
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Ursula Citlalli Abad Vivero. Morphogenesis at the shoot Apical Meristem. Morphogenesis. Université de Lyon, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSEN088⟩. ⟨tel-01948883⟩

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