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Rôle des fibres de Purkinje dans le substrat arythmogénique et la mort subite

Abstract : Arrhythmias that lead to sudden death have previously been associated with a specializedcell type, the Purkinje fibers (PF). They form the cardiac conduction system, and have a majorrole in the electrical impulse and synchronous activation of the ventricles. However, they maybe involved in pro-arrhythmic phenomena causing the initiation or maintenance of ventricularfibrillation (VF) in structurally normal and a broad spectrum of cardiac diseases.Nevertheless, electrophysiological and structural characteristics of PF and mechanismsunderlying Purkinje-related arrhythmias are poorly understood. It is hypothesized thatthe Purkinje system plays an important role as a substrate for arrhythmias due to, in part,its impact on transmural repolarization heterogeneity.Here within are six studies describing electrophysiological and macro/micro structuralproperties of sheep and human left ventricles using a combination of conventional andinnovative methods.Results showed that PF, through junctions with the myocardium, locally modulatedthe action potential duration and played a role in the dispersion of repolarization. Therefore,revealing a potential role for PF in both, trigger and maintenance of VF.This work opens new therapeutic perspectives in preventive treatment of ventriculararrhythmia to fight against sudden cardiac death.
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Marine Martinez. Rôle des fibres de Purkinje dans le substrat arythmogénique et la mort subite. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BORD0368⟩. ⟨tel-01948672⟩

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