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De la dispersion aux vortex browniens dans des systèmes hors-équilibres confinés

Abstract : This thesis aims to characterize the out-of-equilibrium stochastic dynamics of Brownian particles under the effectof confinement. This confinement is applied here by attractive potentials or impermeable boundaries creatingentropic barriers. First, we look at the dispersion of particles without interaction in heterogeneous media. Acloud of Brownian particles spreads over time without reaching the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution, andits spreading is then characterized by an effective diffusivity lower than the microscopic diffusivity. In a firstchapter, we are interested in the link between the confinement geometry and the dispersion in the particularcase of periodic microchannels. For this, we calculate the effective diffusivity without dimensionality reductionassumption, instead of the standard Fick-Jacobs’ approach. A classification of the different dispersion regimesis then performed for any geometry for both continuous and discontinuous channels. In a second chapter, weextend this analysis to dispersion in periodic networks of short-range attractive spherical obstacles. The presenceof an attractive potential can surprisingly increase the dispersion. We quantify this effect in the dilute regimeand then show its optimization for several potentials as well as for diffusion mediated by the surface of thespheres. Later, we study the stochastic dynamics of Brownian particles in an optical trap in the presence ofa non-conservative force created by the radiation pressure of the laser. The perturbative expression of thestationary currents describing Brownian vortices is derived for the low pressures keeping the inertial term in theunderdamped Langevin equation. The expression of the power spectrum density is also calculated to observe thetrap anisotropies and the effects of the non-conservative force. Most of analytical expressions obtained duringthis thesis are asymptotically exact and verified by numerical analysis based on the integration of the Langevinequation or the resolution of partial differential equation.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 6, 2018 - 4:37:07 PM
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Matthieu Mangeat. De la dispersion aux vortex browniens dans des systèmes hors-équilibres confinés. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0155⟩. ⟨tel-01947335⟩



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