Inégalités spatiales d'éducation post-primaire et secondaire à Ouagadougou : enjeux de gouvernance et d'aménagement du territoire

Abstract : At the independence of Upper Volta in 1960, the city of Ouagadougou had a total of 10 secondary schools, including 3 public, 5 private Catholic, 1 private Protestant, and 1 private secular. This offer got a sounding increase since then. So, in 2013-2014, the city had more than 390 establishments. It is characterized above all by a greater diversity of actors and a strong primacy of private secular institutions. Moreover, it appears that despite this meteoric growth in school supply related to population growth, access to education remains a problem for a large part of the population. Several factors justify this situation and could be examined in many ways, including public policies and strategies implemented by actors and populations. To understand this situation and see how it is reflected on the territory of the city, this thesis has choosed to question the practices of actors, or governance, in a general way.The process of urbanization of the city appears as a relevant gateway to ask the question. Indeed, urbanization in Ouagadougou is characterized by both high population growth and significant spatial expansion. In a context of low level of public investment in the field of post-primary and secondary education, this situation results in an inability of the public school supply to meet the high demand that results. With a growing demand for education, which has emerged with the current urbanization process, and also because of investments for the development of primary education since the 1990s, the private sector (secular, Franco-Arab, Catholic, Protestant, associative, etc.) got developed. In the school year 2014-2015, it accounted for approximately 91.6% of establishments in the capital. This development of the private sector diversifies the actors implying a plurality of the modes of provision of educational service. Their interventions help to improve a failing public school offer through an increase of schools. However, there are many shortcomings related to school mapping and the quality of education, in terms of respect for official standards.This is why students and families develop several strategies both in school choice and in school attendance. These mechanisms of supply and school demand are reflected on the territory of the city. They thus make it possible to make an urban social geography to the prism of education. The aim of this thesis is to describe the spatial inequalities of post-primary and secondary education in Ouagadougou, and measure their intensities, and then explain them through the issues of governance and regional planning. The analyzes focus on the effects of the spatial distribution of school supply on the choice of schools by students and their families. To achieve this, we proceeded by a mixed analysis which resorts to qualitative and quantitative approaches. After having geo-referenced and mapped all the establishments of the city, qualitative interviews, carried out with actors of the education, made it possible to understand the modes of intervention of the various actors. The spatial transcription of governance and regional planning mechanisms in the field of post-primary and secondary education in Ouagadougou has thus been better understood.
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Issiaka Ouedraogo. Inégalités spatiales d'éducation post-primaire et secondaire à Ouagadougou : enjeux de gouvernance et d'aménagement du territoire. Géographie. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMC011⟩. ⟨tel-01947271⟩

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