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Caractérisation, évaluation de la toxicité du biogaz issu de déchets ménagers et valorisation par reformage catalytique

Abstract : This work studies the energy recovery of the fermentable fraction of waste. Indeed, organic matter decomposes in the absence of oxygen and simultaneously produces biogas. One of the emerging technologies is to upgrade CH₄ and CO₂, the two major components of biogas. This is the dry reforming of methane (CH₄ + CO₂ → 2 CO + 2 H₂) (DRM), which is particularly interesting, since it makes possible to produce a synthesis gas with a H₂/CO ratio close to 1, advantageous for several industrial applications, and to get rid of two greenhouse gases. However, due to its endothermic nature, the dry reforming of methane requires the use of a catalyst, to avoid operating at very high temperatures in order to obtain sufficient conversions. Moreover, the dry reforming of methane is accompanied by secondary reactions, some of which lead to the formation of carbon. In this context, efforts have been focused on the development of catalytic systems with good activity and good resistance against carbon deposition. In this work, real biogas samples were analyzed at two biomethanation centers, one in France and the other in Lebanon. Thus, knowing the identity and the quantity of the various compounds, a study of their effect on the efficiency of the catalyst is done. Our results show that the real biogas is composed, besides the major components, CH₄ and CO₂, of NH₃, H₂S, some terpenes ans some VOCs. In addition, mixed oxides of Co, Ni, Mg and Al were prepared using the hydrotalcite route, in order to obtain interesting catalytic properties. The prepared systems were characterized by different physicochemical techniques and tested in the dry reforming of methane. The Co-Ni based system seems to be the best system joining the high activity of nickel with the high resistance of cobalt towards carbon deposition. The evaluation of the catalytic performances in the presence of some impurities that exist in biogas quch as volatile organic compounds (toluene) is also a part of this work. Finally, the toxicity of biogas collected from biomethanation centers was evaluated. Human lung cell cultures (BEAS-2B) were thus exposed at the air / liquid interface using the Vitrocell® system. After exposure of the cells, a set of toxicity markers is determined. In this study, the impact of biogas on human health will be evaluated.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 6, 2018 - 10:51:07 AM
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Carole Tanios. Caractérisation, évaluation de la toxicité du biogaz issu de déchets ménagers et valorisation par reformage catalytique. Autre. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017DUNK0474⟩. ⟨tel-01946560⟩

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