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Theses

Hybridations inter-spécifiques chez le pommier et co-évolution hôte-pathogène

Abstract : In the first part of my thesis project, I studied the evolutive history of apple tree species in Europe, including interspecific hybridizations. Analyses of whole genome data confirmed that the progenitor species of the cultivated apple tree was M. sieversii, a Central Asia wild apple tree, but also that a high proportion of European cultivated varieties form a genetic group distinct from the wild species. These varieties show traces of introgressions from M. sylvestris and of population subdivision along an East-West axis. Microsatellite markers also showed that introgressions from the cultivated apple were also quite frequent in wild apple tree populations and thus threaten their genetic integrity. We found that introgression levels were correlated to anthropic activities of apple tree cultivation and gave rise to hybrids with no detectable reduced fitness on the traits measured. Our study of the European wild apple tree phylogeography allowed us to detect differentiated genetic groups resulting from the past climatic history of the planet and which should be considered as different evolutionary significant units in conservation.In the second part of my thesis project, I studied coevolution between plant species and their pathogenic fungi in two different systems. I first compared the evolutive history of cultivated and wild apple trees in Central Asia and that of their scab pathogen, Venturia inaequalis. In the Kazakhstan Mountains, the cultivated apple tree has been reintroduced back from Europe during the last two centuries. This created a secondary contact zone, not only between the two apple tree species, but also between the agricultural and the wild types of V. inaequalis. While the invasion of natural populations by the cultivated apple trees still seems geographically limited, the agricultural pathogen is widespread in the forests and on the wild host trees. However, the number of hybrids in the pathogen was limited, probably because of intrinsic reproductive barriers since no ecological barriers were found. I also compared spatial genetic structures at the European scale in the plant Silene latifolia and its anther-smut pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae. Our dataset included genotypes from the pathogens and the plants on which they were collected, and the population structures appeared remarquably congruent. Three phylogenetic groups were identified in these both species, corresponding with the temperate species range contraction-expansion cycles during the past glaciations. A substructure was identified in the pathogen suggesting the possibility of a more complex history.
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Alice Feurtey. Hybridations inter-spécifiques chez le pommier et co-évolution hôte-pathogène. Génétique des populations [q-bio.PE]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS446⟩. ⟨tel-01941395⟩

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