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Exploration fonctionnelle de l'activité cytotoxique de lymphocytes T humains en contexte de pathologie et de thérapie

Abstract : During different pathological conditions such as infections, tumoral processes or chronic inflammation diseases, altered cells are eliminated through a cytotoxic activity mediated by several immune cell populations. This cellular function is therefore crucial for carrying out the action of the immune system. My thesis project focuses on fundamental aspects of the lytic activity of two cytotoxic lymphocyte populations: CD8+ T cells and type-1 CD4+ regulatory T cells. To explore the mechanisms of this activity, this study has been driven on two cases, pathological and therapeutic models, at the population and single-cell levels and also at the cellular and nanoscopic scales of the molecular organisation. We have been able to demonstrate that the CD8+ T cell lysis activity against an excess of target cells is effective over prolonged periods, relying on a highly heterogeneous individual capacity to perform multiple lysis. The importance of this sustained cytotoxic activity was reinforced by the identification of a lytic defect, particularly pronounced on a long time period, of CD8+ T cells from Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients. This defect is related to a reduced activation of the LFA-1 integrin and delay in the lethal hit delivery. In addition, the WASP protein allows to restrict high affinity LFA-1 to dense nanoclusters as well as the assembly of LFA- 1 ring and the localization of the lytic granules inside this ring. Moreover, type-1 CD4+ regulatory T cells from a cellular therapy (Ovasave(r)) demonstrated a cytotoxic activity toward myeloid cells, additionally to an immunosuppressive activity on conventional T cells. This activity is implemented over long time periods, until reaching optimal efficiency, and is related to a delay in the lethal hit delivery. Surprisingly, despite a specificity for ovalbumin, the cytotoxic activity measured in absence of the antigen suggests a TCR independence. In addition, lysis is not mediated by perforin but is exclusively granzyme-dependent. Thus, these therapeutic T cells exhibit an alternative cytotoxic activity. To conclude, my thesis project permits to characterize a sustained lysis activity relying on a heterogeneous individual capacity. This ability to sustain a lytic activity involves stability of the synapse, where WASP plays a key role towards the activation and organization of LFA-1. The therapeutic regulatory T lymphocytes also demonstrated a sustained cytotoxic activity, however the molecular actors are unconventional. On the whole, sustained lytic activity would be key to the calibration of cytotoxic responses in relation to the size of the target population, as well as sharing with other cellular functions such as cytokine secretion.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01941126
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Submitted on : Friday, November 30, 2018 - 5:06:07 PM
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Delphine Guipouy. Exploration fonctionnelle de l'activité cytotoxique de lymphocytes T humains en contexte de pathologie et de thérapie. Immunologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30263⟩. ⟨tel-01941126⟩

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