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Caractérisation des interactions plasma/parois dans un disjoncteur haute tension

Abstract : High-voltage circuit breakers, present in the power grid, ensure in safety the electricity distribution. When an error is detected, or for a maintenance operation, the opening of the electrical contacts within the circuit breaker causes the appearance of an electric arc at its terminals. Protection and cut-off will only be effective if the electrical arc cut off. Many parameters, geometric and physical, are involved in the breaking capacity of a circuit breaker. The aim of this work is to analyze the impact of plasma on the various materials making up the circuit breaker. A purely theoretical approach is tackled through the use of the commercial software ANSYS Fluent. This work is carried out in collaboration with Siemens, which provides the experimental data necessary for the discussion and validation of the model. In this work, we first consider the ablation of teflon nozzles. This phenomenon is taken into account in our study, using an ablation model based on the theory of T. Christen. The ablation of the walls plays a fundamental role on the rise in pressure in the heating volumes, and has a direct effect on the cut-off realization. Thus, the role and quantification of C2F4 vapors are discussed and detailed. The second plasma / material interaction that should be studied is that with the mobile electrode made of a tungsten copper mixture. This interaction is rarely studied in the literature. The implementation requires the development of sub-layers models in the vicinity of the electrode, based on energy and flux balances, which make it possible to determine by non-equilibrium approaches the temperature of the electrodes and the rate of vapor production. On a real circuit breaker configuration, the temporal characteristics of the physical (temperature, velocities, pressure) and electrical (current, voltage) quantities are presented and discussed in the high current phase. We conclude on the need to consider the ablation of C2F4 for a good description of the rise in pressure in the heating volumes because they condition the blowing at the moment of current-zero and on the need to take into account the copper vapors because these are present at the zero crossing of the current and then condition the breaking capacity of the circuit breaker.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01940433
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Submitted on : Friday, November 30, 2018 - 11:47:06 AM
Last modification on : Saturday, August 15, 2020 - 4:09:28 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, March 1, 2019 - 1:50:42 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01940433, version 1

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Maeva Courrege. Caractérisation des interactions plasma/parois dans un disjoncteur haute tension. Thermique [physics.class-ph]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30162⟩. ⟨tel-01940433⟩

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