Économie informelle en Haïti, marché du travail et pauvreté : analyses quantitatives

Abstract : The predominance of the informal sector in the economy of Haiti, where more than 80% of the population lives below the threshold of poverty and more than 35% unemployed, suggests links between the informal economy, poverty and the labour market. Highlight these interrelationships, requires an assessment of the informal economy, which is the subject of the four chapters of this thesis, dealing successively with the evolution of the macroeconomic situation, human capital, the informal earnings of workers, and the segmentation of the labour market.The first chapter made a diagnosis of the phenomenon according to the State of affairs of the developed theories and the evolution of the macroeconomic framework of Haiti from 1980 to 2010. And then offers a macroeconomic assessment of the informal sector as a percentage of GDP from a PLS (Partial Least Squares).Chapter two sets out the relationship between the evolution of the informal economy, deregulation and neo-liberal policies through a LISREL (Linear Structural Relations) model. We look at the impact of the budgetary, fiscal and monetary policies of the past 30 years on the informal economy. We also reassess the causes of the evolution of the informal economy generally evoked by the empirical studies (taxes, social security).In the chapter three, we analyse the micro-real dimension of the informal economy through a model of the Mincer earnings estimated by the equations logit from data in a national survey on employment and the informal economy (EEEI) in 2007. We analyse the determinants of informal gains in terms of the position of the market workers (employees, entrepreneurs and self-employed); and revenues (formal and informal) and the socio-economic characteristics of the working poor and non-poor compared to the poverty line.In chapter four, we first test the competitiveness and the segmentation of the labour market by making use of model of Roy and the expanded Roy model through an estimate a model Tobit. We use a model of Dirichlet process: first analyse the segmentation and possible informal work and market competitiveness as its determinants, according to data from the EEEI 2007; then, to distinguish the fundamental characteristics of the involuntary informal (excluded from the formal labour market) than the voluntary informal who gain comparative advantages.
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Roseman Aspilaire. Économie informelle en Haïti, marché du travail et pauvreté : analyses quantitatives. Economies et finances. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC0122⟩. ⟨tel-01938993⟩

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