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Métabolisme et intérêt nutritionnel de l’acide docosapentaénoïque n-3 : modulation du statut tissulaire en acides gras n-3 par les lipides laitiers alimentaires chez le rat

Abstract : The optimization of tissue status in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) is one of the current goals in human nutrition. Indeed, many beneficial effects on human health have been demonstrated for these different n-3 LCPUFA. However, the bioconversion of these derivatives from their food precursor, α-linolenic acid, is limited in humans and it does not meet the needs of the organism. Among this family of fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been widely studied in contrast to those of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). The first objective of this work was to study the impact of dietary supplementation with DPA on fatty acid metabolism and lipid metabolism in healthy rats. For this, a method for purifying DPA with high purity and in large quantities by liquid chromatography was first established. This result helps future research of the in vivo effects of DPA, poorly commercially available. After its nutritional supplementation, DPA was incorporated into multiple tissues and it has affected the n-3 LCPUFA tissue compositions of specific organs such as the liver, heart, lung, spleen and the kidney. Thus, supplementation with DPA could be a source of EPA, DPA, and to a lesser extent DHA. Finally, compared to supplementation with EPA or DHA, DPA was the most potent n-3 LCPUFA to improve triglyceridemia and cholesterolemia in animals. This information will certainly contribute to a greater consideration of DPA both in nutritional studies and in the direction of future nutritional recommendations. The second area of ​​research focused on the ability of a partial incorporation of dairy lipids in the diet to increase the tissue status in n-3 LCPUFA. Incorporation of dairy lipids in the diet increased DHA status in brain and retina and DPA status in the other studied tissues. In addition, the induction of conversion of n-3 LCPUFA from their precursor by dairy lipid was complementary with the DPA supplementation to increase n-3 LCPUFA status in tissues. These results fit into a context of infant nutrition, during which the incorporation of n-3 LCPUFA is maximal in nervous tissues. Thus, these results provide interesting data for both companies and health professionals to recommend infant formulas containing dairy lipids for consumption.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 28, 2018 - 4:15:08 PM
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Gaëtan Drouin. Métabolisme et intérêt nutritionnel de l’acide docosapentaénoïque n-3 : modulation du statut tissulaire en acides gras n-3 par les lipides laitiers alimentaires chez le rat. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1B020⟩. ⟨tel-01938412⟩

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