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Theses

Revising emissions and climate scenarios with a compact Earth system model

Abstract : This thesis puts into perspective different elements of socio-economic scenarios from a climate change modelling point of view. These elements contribute at improving the comprehension of the current state of climate sciences regarding the scenarios. In the meantime, these elements demonstrate the potential of the recent reduced-form Earth System Model OSCAR v2.2.The first element concerns the uncertainty of emissions. Although emission inventories are uncertain, we ignore what impact on climate change have these uncertainties. We quantify this impact for fossil-fuel emissions, the major contributor to climate change. We show that the uncertainties in emissions are expected to increase with the use of non-conventional fuels, but that they do not increase significantly the uncertainty from Earth system modelling in variables, such as the increase in global surface temperature.The second element is a climate assessment of the recent Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) scenarios. We identify loopholes in the SSP database, and we complete it to calculate the climate projections under these scenarios. Our conclusions suggest inconsistencies in CO2 emissions from Land Use Change (LUC) calculated by the Integrated Assessment Models and in the associated land variables. We identify trade-offs between greenhouse gases in the mitigation of climate change. Using a robust assessment, new carbon budgets are proposed. The uncertainties in increases in global surface temperature are discussed.The third element concerns the negative emissions. Most climate scenarios limiting global warming well below 2°C above preindustrial levels, thus respecting the Paris Agreement, use negative emissions. Using a developed version of OSCAR v2.2, we evaluate the implications for the Earth system of different aspects of different Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) technologies. We identify the reversibility in the different components of the Earth system and calculate the cooling potential of carbon dioxide removal technologies. We also show that the potential of afforestation/reforestation techniques may be impeded by the change in albedo, and that the potential of oceanic enhanced weathering may be lower than expected.Overall, this thesis identifies loopholes in the current development of scenarios. Some do not hinder current conclusions regarding climate change, such as the uncertainties in emission inventories. Others call for further analysis, such as the inconsistencies in the use of CO2 emissions from LUC or the eventual overestimation of the potential of some CDR technologies. It emphasizes the need for an urgent mitigation of climate change.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 27, 2018 - 11:33:09 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, January 4, 2022 - 4:55:28 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01936095, version 1

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Yann Quilcaille. Revising emissions and climate scenarios with a compact Earth system model. Ocean, Atmosphere. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLV041⟩. ⟨tel-01936095⟩

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