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Généralisation de représentations intermédiaires dans une carte topographique multi-échelle pour faciliter la navigation de l'utilisateur

Abstract : A multi-scale map is a set of maps at different scales, displayed on mapping applications, in which users may navigate by zooming in or out. Each of these maps is produced beforehand by cartographic generalization, which aims to adapt the cartographic representation for a target scale. Due to generalization, the representation changes between maps at different scales may disturb the user during its navigation. We assume that adding intermediate representations in an existing multi-scale map may enable a smooth evolution of cartographic content across scales. While theoretical knowledge exists for traditional cartography, we still do not know how to design efficient multi-scale maps. To formalize knowledge on that subject, we studied sixteen existing multi-scale maps. We focused on the used zooming system (zoom levels and display scales) and on the evolution of cartographic representations across scales, in particular for building and road entities. We also analyzed the variation of visual complexity of the map content across scales, using visual clutter measures. We thus identified general trends in terms of multi-scale representation (i.e. use of WMTS standard), some potential disturbing factors (i.e. use of a same map at different scales), but also good practices which may ease the user navigation (i.e. mixed representations). Based on these findings, we made assumptions on the influence of intermediate representations design on user navigation. We built test material from an extract of the Scan Express multi-scale map of the French IGN, between the existing maps at 1:25k and 1:100k scales. We thus produced four different versions of intermediate representations between these two maps, implementing our different hypotheses. This way, we highlighted the technical issues that we faced when producing intermediate representations. Finally, we conducted a controlled user study, asking 15 participants to perform a cartographic task on these different multi-scale maps, to evaluate our hypotheses
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Marion Dumont. Généralisation de représentations intermédiaires dans une carte topographique multi-échelle pour faciliter la navigation de l'utilisateur. Géographie. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1076⟩. ⟨tel-01935783⟩

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