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Apport des SIG et de la réalité virtuelle à la modélisation et la simulation du trafic urbain

Abstract : Mapping and spatial data visualization are increasingly used to communicate to a wide audience, while providing specific expertise. We want to illustrate the application of geographical information systems to 4D urban traffic simulation thanks to new technologies such as virtual reality headsets. Road flow can be described in equations by discrete simulation (car by car) and continuous simulation (as a fluid flow).Firstly, we study the cartography history, more particularly the city representation over time. Urban traffic management is a critical piece for urban planners. Its representation has changed both with precise tools uses, and with current issues. An increase in urbanization leads us to be more and more farsighted of urban flows. It's not only a road networks question. These urbanization problems impact other networks as sanitation which are undersized dealing with population and surfaces damp-proofing increases. It's the same problem with the water supply which has to be replaced to cover the population needs, and more generally with all underground networks. We also study in this part the road network model via graphs and hypergraphs to optimize the code. Indeed, the chosen model, developed by Mr. Bouillé, the HBDS representation, is close to the object oriented code writing and helps to well structure a network. Afterwards we describe the development criterion through the raw data choice and the computer languages. Raw data choice is important to get the most realist simulation. The fact to make simulation all over the world, and not only in France, is one of the aims of this work. That's why we do a data analysis to find the best data to supply simulations. Then we expose methods and achievements that we implement for this study. In this part, we present the code organization and the geomatic tools helping to the city traffic simulation. We build many algorithms before coding, to optimize the conception time and to strengthen the created model. Moreover we talk about the benefits of a decision support tool in this context via the implementation tools :- Computer simulation,- Expert System with Artificial Intelligence creation. At least, visual results and perspectives are discussed. We describe the graphical user interface which had to be user-friendly. Indeed, owner user interfaces are often complicated. It has to be approachable to offer wide tools depending on users fields. As part of our thematic, we can limit interactions with the user and focus on targeted uses on simulation. We can also see the immersion view uses as the stereoscopy, technique underused in actual GIS
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Submitted on : Monday, November 26, 2018 - 6:05:08 PM
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Julien Richard. Apport des SIG et de la réalité virtuelle à la modélisation et la simulation du trafic urbain. Géographie. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1058⟩. ⟨tel-01935571⟩

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