Etude des propriétés neuromusculaires chez l'enfant : approche par la stimulation magnétique périphérique

Abstract : The purpose of this PhD thesis was to compare the contribution of the maximal voluntary activation level (VA) of the motor units to force production differences between children and adults in various mechanical conditions that affect force production (muscle length, contraction mode and velocity), and in fatigue condition. Thirty one pre-pubertal 8 to 12-year old boys and 37 men (18-30 years) were recruited and allocated into the 3 studies ofthis project. The first study was devoted to compare the effects of muscle length and fatigue on the VA and force generating capacity of the knee extensors between children and adults. In the second study, we compared the effects of muscle length on the VA and force generating capacity of the plantar flexors between children and adults. The third study analysed the effect of contraction mode and velocity on the VA and force generating capacity of the knee extensors between children and adults. Neuromuscular properties were assessed with peripheral magnetic stimulation and maximal voluntary contractions. Results showed a higher VA of the knee extensors in adults at long muscle length (90° and 100° knee flexion) but no difference between children and adults at short length (20° knee flexion; study 1). However, the VA of the plantar flexors was not affected by muscle length changes whatever the age group considered (study 2). Results also showed a higher VA in isometric mode compared to eccentric and concentric conditions whatever the age group (study 3). However, the effect of this VA reduction on force generating capacity differed between groups, a concomitant force reduction being observed in adults, but not in children. Finally, we observed a greater VA reduction and therefore greater central fatigue in children during the fatiguing protocol (study 1). A relative immaturity and the particular musculo-tendinous properties of children (higher compliance) may account for the reported results.
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Virginie Kluka. Etude des propriétés neuromusculaires chez l'enfant : approche par la stimulation magnétique périphérique. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015CLF22649⟩. ⟨tel-01935263⟩

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