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Role of the Histamine Releasing Factor (HRF) in Plasmodium parasite transmission and disease pathogenesis

Abstract : Recent findings have raised the hypothesis that clinical susceptibility to malaria may be related to allergy-type response. In human infection with P. falciparum, as well as in murine models of malaria, increased levels of histamine have been shown to be associated with disease severity. Histamine releasing factor (HRF), shown to be implicated in the release of pro-inflammatory histamine during late-phase allergy, was demonstrated to be produced by the parasite during mild and severe malaria infections suggesting that Plasmodium HRF may affect host immune responses and contributes to the pathogenesis. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the role of Plasmodium HRF in the development of the immune response and to determine whether its expression is associated with the severity of malaria disease by studying two HRF-deficient (hrfΔ) murine parasites (PbANKA and PbNK65). Infection with PbANKA-hrfΔ sporozoites showed a decrease in the frequency of ECM due to the impairment of the development of the mutant parasites in liver stages as a consequence of the up-regulation of IL-6. Infection with PbNK65-hrfΔ parasites confirmed the importance of HRF in enhancing the virulence of the parasite. Indeed, PbNK65-hrfΔ infection results in parasite clearance leading to a long-lasting protection and immune memory as reflected by an up-regulation of IL-6, a down-regulation of PD-1 expression on T cells and in the enhancement of Ab-mediated phagocytosis. HRF is the first parasite gene which directly modulates the host immune response.
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Claudia Demarta-Gatsi. Role of the Histamine Releasing Factor (HRF) in Plasmodium parasite transmission and disease pathogenesis. Parasitology. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066403⟩. ⟨tel-01933730⟩

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