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Analyse de modèles de la digestion anaérobie : applications à la modélisation et au contrôle des bioréacteurs

Abstract : This PhD thesis focuses on the mathematical analysis of different anaerobic digestion (AD) models. In a first part, we study a 4-step model with enzymatic degradation of the substrate (organic matter) that can partly be under a solid form. We investigate the effects of hydrolysis on the behavior of the AD process and the production of biogas (namely, the methane and the hydrogen). We consider, in a first model, that the microbial enzymatic activity is constant, then we take into consideration an explicit hydrolytic microbial compartment for the substrate biodegradation. The considered models include the inhibition of acetogens, hydroge- notrophic methanogens and acetoclastic methanogens growth bacteria. To examine the effects of these inhibitions in presence of a hydrolysis step, we first study an inhibition-free model. We determine the steady states and give sufficient and neces- sary conditions for their stability. The existence and stability of the steady states are illustrated by operating diagrams. We prove that modeling the hydrolysis phase by a constant enzymatic activity affects the production of methane and hydrogen. Furthermore, introducing the hydrolytic microbial compartment yields new steady states and affects the stability regions. We prove that the biogas production occurs at only one of the steady states according to the operating parameters and state variables and we determine the maximal rate of biogas produced, in each case. In the second part, we are interested in a reduced and simplified model of the AD pro- cess. We focus on the acetogenesis and hydrogenetrophic methanogenesis phases. The model describes a syntrophic relationship between two microbial species (the acetogenic bacteria and the hydrogenetrophic methanogenic bacteria) with two in- put substrates (the fatty acids and the hydrogen) including both decay terms and inhibition of the acetogenic bacteria growth by an excess of hydrogen in the sys- tem. The existence and stability analysis of the steady states of the model points out the existence of a new equilibrium point which can be stable according to the operating parameters of the system. By means of operating diagrams, we show that, whatever the region of space considered, there exists only one locally exponentially stable steady state. This study is generalized to the case where the growth of the hydrogenetrophic methanogens bacteria is inhibited. This model exhibits a rich be- havior with the existence of two positive steady states and bistability. We illustrate by means of operating diagrams the effect of this inhibition on the reduction of the coexistence region and the emergence of a bistability region.
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Yessmine Daoud. Analyse de modèles de la digestion anaérobie : applications à la modélisation et au contrôle des bioréacteurs. Analyse classique [math.CA]. Université Montpellier; Université de Tunis El Manar, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTS050⟩. ⟨tel-01933239⟩

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