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Theses

Identification de composés naturels inhibant le virus de l’hépatite C

Abstract : Hepatitis C is a liver disease affecting 170 million people worldwide. This disease is caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). New treatments, recently marketed, against HCV are very expensive and not really accessible for most-infected patients especially in low-income countries. Moreover, the use of these new molecules generates the emergence of HCV resistant variants responsible for treatment failure for 5 to 10% of the patients. Therefore, the discovery of new antiviral molecules is always needed. Since centuries, plants are used in traditional medicine. They are a very attractive source of bio-active compounds. Plant extracts or natural molecules used in combination with actual therapy, could significantly reduce the cost of these new treatments and render them accessible to more patients.Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and delphinidin are natural molecules derived respectively from green tea and red berries. These two molecules inhibit HCV entry into hepatocyte cells. We have shown that this inhibition is due to a deformation of viral particles by the molecules inducing a blockade of virus attachment to the cell surface. We further investigated the process leading to this deformation, and conclude that it might be related to aggregation of viral envelope glycoproteins.We screened extracts of extremophile plants from Tunisia and showed that the crude extract of Juncus maritimus rhizome inhibited HCV replication step. J. maritimus is a plant present in arid soils in Tunisia but also in French coasts. In collaboration with the Pharmacognosy laboratory of Lille and thanks to a bioguided fractionation, the active compound present in this plant could be isolated. It was identified as dehydrojuncusol, which inhibits viral replication with a half maximal effective concentration of 1.31 μM. We have also shown that dehydrojuncusol is able to inhibit replication of viruses with resistance mutations to current treatments targeting the viral protein NS5A. We have also tried to identify the viral target of dehydrojuncusol, and it seems that the target might also be the NS5A protein.The results obtained in this thesis confirm the hypothesis that natural molecules could be used in the treatment of hepatitis C.
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Marie-Emmanuelle Sahuc. Identification de composés naturels inhibant le virus de l’hépatite C. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S056⟩. ⟨tel-01930887⟩

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