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Ectonucléotidases, adénosine et transmission synaptique

Abstract : The functions of Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP) in the brain are not clearly identified. The localization and expression of TNAP at the neuronal level, however, suggests that it plays a prominent role in the development and the function in the brain. This is supported by the presence of severe epileptic seizures in humans carrying TNAP mutation. These epileptic seizures are lethal in TNAP KO mice. Studies in mice show that TNAP could regulate GABA-mediated postsynaptic inhibition and may be involved in presynaptic inhibition mediated by adenosine. Adenosine is, partly, synthesized via the successive dephosphorylation of ATP to ADP and then to AMP by ectonucleotidases. Among them TNAP and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E) are able to hydrolyze AMP into adenosine. Adenosine acts mainly at the presynaptic level via A1 receptors activation. Adenosine has an influence on synaptic transmission and thus on synaptic plasticity. This could partly explain the epileptic seizures observed in TNAP knock-out mice. The two main purposes of my thesis were: (1) to evaluate the contribution of TNAP in adenosine production in the brain; (2) to study the influence of adenosine on synaptic plasticity. Firstly, the study of the contribution of TNAP in adenosine production in the brain was carried out using two complementary approaches. A metabolomic approach (proton NMR spectroscopy) on whole brains of TNAP KO mice showed that TNAP in involved in adenosine synthesis in the brain. In a second approach, in vitro electrophysiological recordings on mouse brain slices allowed us to examine the consequences of the inhibition of the ectonucleotidases involved in adenosine synthesis. This revealed that inhibition of ectonucleotidases (TNAP and NT5E) did not suppress the inhibitory effect of AMP mediated by A1 receptors. Secondly, we studied the influence of adenosine on short-term synaptic plasticity. Field potentials were recorded in response to electrical stimulations (3.125 to 100 Hz) applied with frequencies encompassing the range of physiological oscillation. Our results show that, with high adenosine concentrations, the facilitation is emphasized compared to that observed in the control situation. This effect is observed for frequencies greater than or equal to 25 Hz. In addition, the higher the frequency, the greater the facilitation. Finally, by blocking the action of endogenous adenosine, the opposite effect was observed: a deficient facilitation with respect to the control, whose defect was increasing with stimulation frequency. All these results converge towards the hypothesis that TNAP deficiency, expressed by absence of adenosine, could contribute to the maintenance of the epileptic processes generated by an imbalance of the neuronal inhibition and the excitation due to a decrease of GABA. AMP inhibitory effect mediated by A1 receptors, would not be sufficient to counteract epileptic seizures observed in hypophosphatasic patients and TNAP KO mice.
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Marie Gleizes. Ectonucléotidases, adénosine et transmission synaptique. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30306⟩. ⟨tel-01929938⟩

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