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Effets des cellules stromales mésenchymateuses dans la chimiorésistance des cancers ovariens par sécrétion de chimiokines et polarisation des macrophages

Abstract : Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecological cancer death. To date, the most effective treatment consists of the complete excision of the tumor associated with chemotherapy based on platinum salts and taxanes. However, the 5-year overall survival remains low (close to 40%) due to a high rate of recurrence and development of resistance to treatments. Disease progression and the acquisition of this chemoresistance seem to be due to interactions between ovarian tumor cells (OTC) and the microenvironment. Amidst the cells of the tumor microenvironment, we were able to isolate mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from tumor biopsies of patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma. These cancer-associated MSC (CA-MSC) have the ability to induce resistance to carboplatin in OTC. In order to understand the mechanisms leading to the secretion of pro-tumoral factors by the CA-MSC in the context of ovarian cancer, we have developed a model based on the in vitro MSC culture of from healthy donors in tumor conditioning media. We have observed that an ovarian tumor environment modifies the physiological phenotype of bone marrow MSC (BM-MSC), leading in particular to the secretion by these "induced" CA-MSC of chemoprotective factors for OTC. Among these secreted factors, we have identified chemokines such as CXCL1, CXCL2 and IL-8 as therapeutic targets in order to control drug resistance. In fact, CA-MSC and "induced" CA-MSC secrete more CXCL1, CXCL2 and IL-8 than BM-MSC and the use of an inhibitor of their receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) sensitized OTC to carboplatin even in the presence of CA-MSC and " induced " CA-MSC secretions. These in vitro experiments have been confirmed in an experimental mouse model in vivo. Indeed, the co-injection of MSC with OTC yielded a greater protection of OTC to carboplatin compared with the OTC injection alone. Co-treatment with a CXCR1 and CXCR2 inhibitor resulted in sensitization of OTC to carboplatin and prevention of MSC-induced chemoresistance. We conducted a retrospective study evaluating the concentration of these chemokines at the time of diagnosis. We thus showed that patients who are a posteriori "resistant" to carboplatin have a higher concentration of chemokines than patients belong to the "sensitive" group to carboplatin. In addition to their direct role concerning the acquisition of chemoresistance, chemokines such as CXCL1, CXCL2 and IL-8 may be involved in the immune system regulation. In this context, we showed that CA-MSC were able to modify the phenotype of macrophages into a M2 phenotype described in literature to have a pro-tumoral activity. Indeed, these polarized macrophages present a lower cytotoxic capacity against OTC than unstimulated macrophages. CXCR1 and CXCR2 inhibitor restores the initial cytotoxic activity of macrophages even in the presence of CA-MSC secretions. Thus, our work suggests that CA-MSC could originate from physiological MSC which, in contact with an ovarian tumor environment, acquire a phenotype capable of inducing the secretion of chemoprotective factors for CTO and of polarizing macrophages into a less cytotoxic phenotype for OTC. These two pro-tumoral mechanisms can be inhibited by the use of CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptor inhibitors emphasizing the role of these chemokines in the development of a chemoresistance and showing how important is to go further is this study. Finally, these chemokines receptors seem to be therapeutic targets in order to sensitize OTC to carboplatin and to potentialize actual treatments. This could prevent the recurrence of ovarian cancers that are presently observed in more than 70% of patients.
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Augustin Le Naour. Effets des cellules stromales mésenchymateuses dans la chimiorésistance des cancers ovariens par sécrétion de chimiokines et polarisation des macrophages. Cancer. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30301⟩. ⟨tel-01929836⟩

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