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Cytodiérèse des cellules épithetiales et maintien de l'intégrité du tissu chez Drosophila melanogaster

Abstract : Epithelial cells are closely juxtaposed to form a tissue playing a physical and chemical barrier between external and internal body compartments. Thus, tissue integrity is essential. During development and adult life, epithelia has to growth and regenerate meaning a lot of divisions. At the end of cell division, cytokinesis occurs, implying the formation of a contractile ring which contracts to separate daughter cells. In Drosophila, once totally closed, the contractile ring gives rise to the midbody, just below adherens junctions, in the septate junctions layer. Last step of cytokinesis, abscission, permits the final cut and the cytoplasmic isolation of daughter cells. If cytokinesis is well described in isolated cells, little is known about epithelial cells cytokinesis. This work shows that whereas all abscission regulators and effectors are recruited, abscission is delayed in epithelial cells. KAEDE photo-conversion assays show that abscission is linked to epithelial cells mitosis entry. Then we investigate how permeability barrier is maintained during cell division. We show that neighboring cells present finger-like protrusions contacting the midbody all along the midbody is moving basally across septate junctions. FRAP experiments on bicellular and tricellular septate junctions show that they form just below adherens junctions and always above the midbody, leading to its basal migration. Contacts maintained with neighbors and polarized assembly of septate junctions participate to the maintenance of tissue integrity throughout epithelial cells divisions.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 20, 2018 - 4:12:05 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01928606, version 1

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Emeline Daniel. Cytodiérèse des cellules épithetiales et maintien de l'intégrité du tissu chez Drosophila melanogaster. Biologie cellulaire. Université Rennes 1, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017REN1B049⟩. ⟨tel-01928606⟩

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