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Etude de l’hépatolyse induite par les cellules immunitaires dans des modèles murins d’hépatites : rôles des protéines RIPK1 et PARP1/2

Abstract : Hepatocyte death is a starting point of liver disease progression by promoting inflammatory and regenerative processes. These events are beneficial at the beginning of the pathology for the restoration of hepatic homeostasis. However when they are unregulated, they lead to the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, it is important to study the signaling pathways leading to the hepatocyte death as their inhibition is a potential therapeutic approach to reduce liver diseases progression. Innate and acquired immune cells play key roles in the induction or amplification of hepatolysis, mainly mediated by expression and release of death ligands belonging to the TNF-superfamily including TNF-α, FasL and TRAIL. Some studies had already suggested the role of RIPK1 and PARP1/2 proteins in the induction of hepatocyte death during hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (ConA) in mice. Through chemical and genetic approaches, we studied the role of these proteins in the hepatocyte death process during hepatitis. First, we were interested in the dual role of RIPK1 protein that controls the cell fate by promotingsurvival or death. By blocking its kinase activity, we confirme its role in the induction of liver injury induced by ConA. However, using specific conditional mice deficient in RIPK1 only in liver parenchymal cells (LPC) (Ripk1LPC-KO), we reveale its necessary function in the protection of hepatocyte during hepatitis. These works demonstrate that deletion of RIPK1 sensitizes hepatocytes to TNF-α-induced apoptosis by TRAF2 destabilization. Thus RIPK1 plays a key role in the protection of hepatocytes during hepatitis induced by ConA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), DNA-CpG, or recombinant IFN-γ and TRAIL co-administration. In addition, we demonstrate that RIPK1 partially protects from hepatitis and hepatocyte death induced by the activation of Fas. Finally, we showe that PARP2 deficiency leads to a systemic decrease of the number of the invariant NKT-subpopulation of lymphocytes, including in the liver, which prevente hepatocyte death during ConA hepatitis. To conclude, this work helps to clarify the roles of RIPK1 and PARP2 during acute hepatitis. The ability of RIPK1 to control hepatocyte death and survival suggests its involvement during chronic hepatitis and opens the door to its investigation into human liver diseases.
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Aveline Filliol. Etude de l’hépatolyse induite par les cellules immunitaires dans des modèles murins d’hépatites : rôles des protéines RIPK1 et PARP1/2. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Rennes 1, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016REN1B051⟩. ⟨tel-01928525⟩

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