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Etude de la production de biomolécules d'intérêt (phlorotannins, pigments, lipides) d' algues brunes modèles par des approches combinées de profilage métabolique et d'écophysiologie

Abstract : Our study is part of the research process for new compounds of natural origin with biological activities and possible industrial perspectives. In a first part, we tested innovative extraction methodologies using three brown algae species as model. We optimized the solid/liquid extraction protocol by estimating diverse crucial parameters which influence the extraction yield and radical scavenging activities of extracts. In order to find an innovative and more "green" extraction methodology answering the European standards, we thus tested more recent extraction methods using solvents in their supercritical state or under pressure. The comparison with the solid/liquid process allowed us to select pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using an ethanol-water mixture for the extraction of active compounds with a high efficiency, but also to select Sargassum muticum as an interesting model for further investigations. In a second part, we were interested in the quantitative and qualitative variations of the main macromolecules present in the invasive species S. muticum in Europe. The employment of two analytical techniques (NMR HR-MAS and IR spectroscopy), allowed us to have an overview of biochemical parts of the algae, which vary according to the geographical position of this wide spread species. This study showed how a species is able to modify its biochemical composition, and then to acclimate, according to the environment. We then focused on molecules, which showed important variations along the latitudinal range of S. muticum. This work highlighted the effects of environmental parameters on lipid (GC analysis) and protein compartments as well as on carbohydrates and pigments quantities (HPLC analysis). The influence of these parameters on the size of individuals was also discussed. The last part of this study allowed us to describe the quantitative and qualitative variations of phlorotannins in S. muticum on a large spatial scale, along a latitudinal gradient (Norway-Portugal). At first this variability was measured thanks to temporal and spatial follow-up of the phlorotannins contents. The study of intra-specific and intra-individual variabilities allowed us to highlight an effect of the development stage and of the seaweed part: phlorotannins contents and activities are more important in holdfast and in mature individuals. After the research of a simple protocol for the phenolic compounds semi-purification present in Sargassum muticum, we were able to highlight the presence of compounds of only phlorethol type in this species by means of 2D RMN techniques. These semi-purified fractions possess notorious radical scavenging and antibacterial activities. Finally, the use of several membrane separation techniques allowed us to consider the molecular weight of the various compounds present in the extracted pool of phenolic compounds. Finally, under controlled conditions, the effects of the light quality and the seawater temperature were tested: UV-A and UV-B radiations boost the production of CP while an increase of the temperature makes the phlorotannins production decreasing in S. muticum.
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Anaëlle Tanniou. Etude de la production de biomolécules d'intérêt (phlorotannins, pigments, lipides) d' algues brunes modèles par des approches combinées de profilage métabolique et d'écophysiologie. Biologie végétale. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BRES0055⟩. ⟨tel-01928483⟩

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