Contribuição ao estudo da função dielétrica de superfície por espectroscopia de perda de energia de fotoelétrons induzidos por raios-X (XPS-PEELS)

Abstract : This surface physics study, experimental and theoretical, develops a technique based on the energy loss spectroscopy of photoelectrons, to determine electronic properties of a material from XPS measurements. Based on the physics of photoemission in a homogeneous solid, the XPS-PEELS technique provides the energy loss function ELF(E, q) related to the imaginary part and the dielectric function with energy extension up to 50 eV and a typical sensitivity of ≈ 5 nm in depth. In metals or low-gap semiconductors, with important overlap between the elastic peak and the energy loss region, the technique became applicable by the Fourier transform method developed in this thesis. In addition to the distribution of the X-ray source and analyzer apparatus function, the asymmetric shape of the no-loss peak ZLP(E) is based on the calculation of the Density of Electronic States (DFT method) and the Hopfield-Wertheim-Citrin model describing the response of valence electrons to the creation of the hole (many body theory). The XPS-PEELS algorithm uses the entire spectrum without any empirical background subtraction. It considers two types of plasmon excitations - intrinsic and extrinsic - with different rates of creation but imposing the same distribution in energy. This original method was applied to the aluminum metal, allowing the analysis of the loss function and revealing interband excitations (1.80 eV) at low energy, very close to the no-loss peak. As an electron spectroscopy technique, dispersion effects of the loss function ELF(E, q) were considered using a TD-DFT code (Exciting); for any level of approximation (RPA, ALDA, LRC), the calculations do not describe properly the high width (2.3 eV) of the experimental ELF. At the end of the work, we compare the Fourier transform method with an empirical method of elastic peak elimination, valid for insulators, in the case of aluminum oxide Al₂O₃.
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Victor Mancir da Silva Santana. Contribuição ao estudo da função dielétrica de superfície por espectroscopia de perda de energia de fotoelétrons induzidos por raios-X (XPS-PEELS). Physics [physics]. Université Rennes 1; Universidade Federal da Bahia (Brésil), 2017. Portuguese. ⟨NNT : 2017REN1S024⟩. ⟨tel-01927600v2⟩

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