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Traitement du virus de l'hépatite C (VHC) par agents antiviraux directs : modélisation de l'optimisation des traitements et impact sur l'histoire naturelle et l'épidémiologie

Abstract : The arrival of direct-acting antivirals agents (DAAs) has spurred a rapid revolution in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), supplanting the previous standard of care, i.e. pegylated interferon and ribavirin. These new treatments are associated with an increased rate of virological response however they rapidly faced some limits more particularly at the beginning with the first generation NS3/4A protease inhibitors. From 2014 on the second wave of DAA was available for treatment of chronic HCV infection and surpassed previous encountered limits. These treatments are nowadays the gold standard for HCV treatment in high-income countries.The idea of HCV eradication recently emerged since DAA treatment are highly effective. However, their associated high cost and recent high-risk behaviors associated with an increased risk of HCV transmission (among intravenous drug users and homosexuals) have been reported. These issues need therefore to be addressed in order to achieve the objectives of the World Health Organization for 2030 of an HCV eradication. Moreover, these treatments allow a sustained virological response in almost all patients and consequently reduce the risk of liver-related complications, but a recent controversy regarding a potential increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma after DAA treatment has been raised.Three issues will be extensively discussed in this manuscript regarding how these treatments can be used to optimize their effect on HCV natural history at the individual and population level through different statistical approaches.As regards the first issue, this project allowed us to demonstrate regarding the tolerance and efficacy of DAA treatment: (i) a lower antiviral efficacy than previously reported in the phase III trials for first generationprotease inhibitor regimen (telaprevir and boceprevir), (ii) impairment of renal function during first generation protease inhibitor treatment, (iii) an increased rate of reported side effects during first-generation protease inhibitor treatment and more particularly anemia, potentially related to an increased ribavirin biodisponibility induced by protease inhibitor intake and (iv) a remarkable antiviral efficacy of second generation DAAs without impact of patients' characteristics norpharmacology on virological response rate. The recent issue regarding a higher risk of HCC recurrence after DAA treatment was also explored through a local cohort study and no impact of DAA treatment was observed when comparing DAA-exposed vs non DAA-exposed patients. Finally, we conducted amodelling study on HCV transmission in the coinfected HIV-HCV French population and our results suggested that an annual DAA treatment coverage rate of 50% was required in the homosexual population with high-risk behaviors to counter the recent observed epidemic in this population.Our different works provide new insights on how to optimize the use of DAA treatment through several statistical approaches and bring new elements for discussion on the recent controversy. The new DAA have an excellent efficacy and tolerance profile and should be universally used in all populations without restriction. However, further studies are required to explore on a deeper level the question regarding HCC recurrence after DAA treatment. Efforts are also still needed regarding DAA treatment access, associated costs and HCV screening to reach the objective of HCV eradication
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Victor Virlogeux. Traitement du virus de l'hépatite C (VHC) par agents antiviraux directs : modélisation de l'optimisation des traitements et impact sur l'histoire naturelle et l'épidémiologie. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1165⟩. ⟨tel-01927298⟩

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