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Modifications chimiques des aptamères, pour des applications en imagerie biomédicale

Abstract : The aim of my thesis was to develop new probes that can be used in biomedical imaging, based on the use of aptamers for the detection of two types of tumors: glioblastomas and melanomas. Tracers have been developed with the aim to target the matrix protein hMMP-9. In a thesis, an aptamer anti-hMMP-9 noted F3B was obtained. Based on this compound, different derivatives were prepared for using in biomedical imaging: F3B-Cy5, F3B-DOTA or F3B-MAG3. The affinity of the new conjugates for hMMP-9 was evaluated by SPR and on sections of human melanomas. Biodistribution studies of F3B-DOTA conjugates and F3B-MAG3 were performed at on melanoma bearing mice, the results showed that both radiolabeled aptamers specifically detected the hMMP-9. In addition, optical fluorescence imaging confirmed the binding to hMMP-9 by F3B-CY5. In order to improve tumor detection sensitivity, two types of modifications were investigated: developing of F3B multimeric structures and a bi-functional system. For both these approaches, we synthesized a dendrimer with a focal point, which could give access to a multi-modal imaging. This dendrimer has two or three spacers bearing an azide group used for coupling with aptamers by "click" chemistry. The dendrimer carrying at the focal point an amine function NH2 used for fixing biotin in order to determine the affinity Kd of this new probe by using SPR. A DOTA ligand will be fixed later in order to view this tracer in SPECT.
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Aref Hassan. Modifications chimiques des aptamères, pour des applications en imagerie biomédicale. Ingénierie biomédicale. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BORD0242⟩. ⟨tel-01925859⟩

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