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Quantum gases in box potentials : sound and light in bosonic Flatland

Abstract : Ultracold atoms have proven to be a powerful platform for studying many-body physics. However the inhomegeneity of atomic clouds induced by potentials commonly used to trap the atoms constitutes a limitation for studies probing large length scales. Here we present the implementation of a new versatile setup to study two-dimensional Bose gases, combining a tunable in-plane box potential with a strong and efficient confinement along the third direction. We study different excitations of the system, either of internal degrees of freedom of the atoms with light scattering, or of their collective motion with phonon propagation. The slab geometry is particularly well suited for light scattering studies. It allows one to probe high atomic densities, leading to strong induced dipole-dipole interactions, while keeping a good enough light transmission for measurements. We monitor the deviation from the single atom behavior for near resonant light by varying the atomic density. We additionally monitor the spreading of photons inside the slab by injecting light only at the center of a disk of atoms. We also investigate collective excitations of the atomic gas. We measure the speed of sound which is linked to the superfluid density of the cloud and compare our results to a two-fluid hydrodynamic model predictions. Using a relevant geometry, we additionally study how an isolated system goes back to equilibrium. This is done by imaging the phase of the resulting Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) after merging up to twelve BECs.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01925194, version 2

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Jean-Loup Ville. Quantum gases in box potentials : sound and light in bosonic Flatland. Quantum Gases [cond-mat.quant-gas]. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEE024⟩. ⟨tel-01925194v2⟩

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