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Étude des conséquences génomiques et fonctionnelles de l'instabilité des microsatellites dans le cancer colorectal

Abstract : Since the discovery of a link between mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency and cancer, microsatellite instability (MSI) is thought as a process underlying cell transformation and tumour progression and invasion. MSI tumours are a subset of frequent human neoplasms, both inherited and sporadic, associated with several primary locations (colon, stomach, endometrium…). In MMR-deficient cells, MSI generates hundreds of frameshift mutations in genes (MSI Target Genes, MSI-TGs) containing coding microsatellite sequences (e.g. -1/+1 bp, insertions/deletions, i.e. indels). Some of these mutations affect genes with a role in human carcinogenesis and are thus expected to promote the MSI-driven tumorigenic process. During my PhD, I aimed to decipher the role of MSI in colon tumorigenesis. I exploited exome-sequencing data available in my lab that were generated from the analysis of a series of 47 human MSI primary colorectal cancer (CRC). Through biostatistics analysis and mathematical models that we designed to interpret mutation rates in the context of the high background for instability characterizing MSI in CRC, we identified a few microsatellites containing genes coding mutations that were negatively selected in MSI colon tumours (N=13). Under the hypothesis that these events may have a negative impact in colon tumorigenesis, I demonstrated that the silencing of these MSI target genes (siRNA/shRNA) was deleterious for MSI cancer cells using in vitro and in vivo models (impairment of proliferation and/or migration and/or response to chemotherapy and/or tumour growth) (Jonchère*, Marisa*, Greene* et al., submitted).
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Malorie Greene. Étude des conséquences génomiques et fonctionnelles de l'instabilité des microsatellites dans le cancer colorectal. Cancer. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066592⟩. ⟨tel-01922410⟩

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