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Organisation spatiale de LFA-1 à la synapse immunologique des lymphocytes T cytotoxiques : approches de microscopie de super-résolution

Abstract : LFA-1 (Lymphocyte Function Associated antigen-1) is a central integrin in the function of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes since it allows the formation of the immunological synapse with target cells. The regulation of this cellular interaction is controlled by the quality of the engagement of LFA-1 with its ligand, ICAM-1 (Intracellular Adhesion Molecule- 1). A key support for the spatio-temporal control of LFA-1 activation is the cortical actin cytoskeleton in which LFA-1 is anchored by its intracellular domain. How LFA-1 is organized at the immunological synapse and how the coordination between LFA-1 and actin cytoskeleton operates accurately within cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes are unresolved issues. The aim of this thesis project was to study the precise organization of the LFA-1 distribution at the immunological synapse in relation to the cortical actin underlying the contact between cytotoxic T lymphocytes and target cells. For this purpose, super-resolution microscopy approaches, including SIM (Structured Illumination Microscopy), dSTORM (direct STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy) and TIRF (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence microscopy) were developed. They were applied to untransformed human T lymphocytes derived from healthy donors and patients with a congenital immunodeficiency, the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS), characterized by actin cytoskeleton remodeling defects at the synapse. The use of the dSTORM approach revealed that activated LFA-1 forms a radial belt composed of hundreds of nanoclusters. The assembly of this belt depends on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton, as shown by the impairment of this structure in the T lymphocytes derived from the WAS patients. The multi-color SIM approach allowed us to investigate the role of the LFA-1 belt in the confinement of lytic granules. Furthermore, the combination of staining with antibodies specific of LFA-1 conformation states shows that LFA-1 activation is a digital process, whereby nanoclusters operate as units in which LFA-1 activation follows an on / off rule. In conclusion, this PhD work exemplifies the great asset of super-resolution microscopy approaches to reveal key activation mechanisms in T lymphocytes and explore the nature of the defects causing pathological dysregulation of the function of these cells.
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Raïssa Houmadi. Organisation spatiale de LFA-1 à la synapse immunologique des lymphocytes T cytotoxiques : approches de microscopie de super-résolution. Immunologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30239⟩. ⟨tel-01922403⟩

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