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Theses

Modélisation de la végétation urbaine comme régulateur thermique

Abstract : Vegetation influences the urban climate, from road to city scale. Street trees implementation is an alternative technic to reduce the urban heat island and to improve the thermal comfort. They modify the radiative and energetic balances by intercepting and absorbing a part of the solar radiation, provide shade, increase the humidity with evapotranspiration, and alter the air flow in the urban canyons. The TEB model is one the rare urban climate models taking into account vegetation. It integrates parameterizations dedicated to low vegetation and green roofs. It can represent the small-scale interactions between mineral surfaces, vegetation and the atmosphere. During this PhD thesis, a parameterization has been developed to model the radiative, energetic and dynamical effects of street and garden trees in urban spaces. An explicit tree canopy has been integrated into the urban canyon, above gardens but also streets. The ISBA vegetation scheme has been used, and included in TEB, to represent these vegetated entities (both low and high strata). The radiative computations of the TEB model have been improved in order to represent the shading and attenuation of radiation due to trees, as well as all the infra-red interactions between the urban elements. An evaluation of the radiative budget has been done thanks to a comparison with the high- resolution architectural model SOLENE, using numerous different urban canyons with several layouts of tree canopies. Then, the energy fluxes computed by ISBA have been dis- aggregated between contributions from high and low vegetation. Fluxes allocated to the trees have been redistributed on the vertical in order to alter the microclimate at realistic height, i.e. respecting the position of the tree crown. A specific drag force of trees on the airflow is simulated. An evaluation has been done on a real experimental site in a canyon-like courtyard with trees where several microclimatic data were collected. The results show an impressive improvement of the surface temperatures of walls and ground, air temperature and wind speed. In the future, these implementations will allow to simulate more realistically several adaptation strategies using greening at city scale, and to evaluate their efficiency in terms of urban heat island mitigation, improvement of human comfort and building energy consumption.
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Emilie Redon. Modélisation de la végétation urbaine comme régulateur thermique. Climatologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30240⟩. ⟨tel-01922348⟩

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