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Développement et intégration d'un récupérateur d’énergie thermique à base de bilames thermiques et de matériaux piézoélectriques

Abstract : The development of energy harvesting systems is linked to the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) more specifically to the proliferation of Wireless Sensor Networks that should respond to the growing needs for monitoring data in domains as diverse as the industry, the urban environments, the home or even the human body. Recent progress in the CMOS technology have enabled to remove some of the technical obstacles to the deployment of these smart and autonomous devices, specifically thanks to the improvements of the performances of microelectronic components, the design of ultra-low-power circuits and even the creation of wireless communication standards well adapted to the needs of wireless sensors. Given the availability of ambient energy sources like mechanical, thermal, light etc., energy harvesters are becoming reliable alternatives to batteries in order to extend the autonomy of these sensors. Consequently, various technologies of generators have been developed to harvest different kind of energies in function of their availability. The present work is a contribution to the development of a thermal energy harvester based on bimetallic strips heat engine and piezoelectric membranes. This type of technology developed by STMicroelectronics is intended to be a low cost alternative to thermoelectric generators exploiting the seebeck effect to convert heat into electricity. Based on this working principle, many harvesters both at the micro and macro scale have been fabricated. This thesis deals with the development of macroscopic energy harvesters whose first proofs of concept were established in a previous thesis. An important part of this manuscript deals with the thermal optimization of this energy harvester both in static and dynamic modes. Once the thermal properties improved, various piezoelectric materials were tested and compared to find the most adapted ones to our application and the same work is realized to choose the best device’s architecture. The integration of the energy harvester is then realized and wireless sensor node applications are demonstrated using various communication protocols and sensors. SPICE modeling of the system is also made and coupled with simulations of power management circuits developed by CEA’s design team. Finally, alternative ways to exploit wasted heat and vibrations are proposed through the development of piezoelectric bimetals and dual energy harvesters able to harvest thermal energy and mechanical energy at the same time: piezoelectric bimetals are realized either by direct deposition of piezoelectric composites or piezoelectric thin films onto bimetals. In the case of the dual energy harvester, piezoelectric cantilever beams were designed and simulated to vibrate at low frequencies (between 50Hz and 125Hz).
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 13, 2018 - 2:56:14 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01920841, version 1


Jihane Boughaleb. Développement et intégration d'un récupérateur d’énergie thermique à base de bilames thermiques et de matériaux piézoélectriques. Thermique [physics.class-ph]. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSEI114⟩. ⟨tel-01920841v1⟩



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