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Transition liquide-solide dans des dispersions d'argiles contrôlée par un biopolymère : Application à la construction en terre

Abstract : Developing raw earthen construction is nowadays a major environmental issue, due to its low embodied energy compared to Portland cement. A solution would be to use a similar process as cement-based concrete, by casting into formworks. Nevertheless, this is limited by technical difficulties, owing to the fact that earth is not a hydraulic binder. In that perspective, this work focuses on inducing a liquid-solid transition to an earth suspension without waiting for drying, similar to cement-based materials. The approach explored to meet this challenge is inspired by the technique of Gelcasting used in the field of technical ceramics. This relies on the gelation of polymers previously introduced into a ceramic slurry to induce a rapid and homogeneous liquid-solid transition. A bibliographic study supplemented by preliminary tests led to the selection of alginate, a biosourced polymer that is non-toxic. Its gelation is allowed at ambient temperature, via addition of multivalent cations such as calcium ions. This polymer proved to be very promising. It made it possible to produce mortar specimens which could be unmoulded 24 hours after casting. A wet compressive strength close to 0.1 MPa could be reached, theoretically sufficient for a wall of 3 meters high to stand under its own weight. A proof of concept at the concrete scale was then realized as a low wall of 40 cm high casted and vibrated and then unmoulded in 24 hours. Mechanical and hygrothermal performances of the dry material were validated, and the presence of the gelled polymer could improve the resistance to erosion. Initial trials showed that the process could be adapted to low calcareous soils.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 13, 2018 - 2:53:06 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01920833, version 1

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Alban Pinel. Transition liquide-solide dans des dispersions d'argiles contrôlée par un biopolymère : Application à la construction en terre. Matériaux. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSEI063⟩. ⟨tel-01920833⟩

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