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Load balancing in multichannel data collection wireless sensor networks

Abstract : The popularity of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is increasing due to their ease ofdeployment and auto-configuration capabilities. They are used in different applica-tion domains including data collection with convergecast scenarios. In convergecast,all data collected in the network is destined to one common node usually called thesink. In case of high carried traffic load and depending on the used routing policy,this many-to-one data collection leads to congestion and queue overflow mainly innodes located near the sink. Congestion and queue overflow reduce delivery ratiothat negatively affects the network efficiency.Wireless sensor nodes are resource constrained devices with limited buffers sizeto store and forward data to the sink. Introducing multichannel communication inWSNs helps to increase the carried traffic load thanks to allowing parallel data trans-mission and reduction of contention and interference. With high traffic load, thenumber of data packets travelling from leaf nodes towards the sink becomes higher.In case the routing scheme does not balance the traffic load, it will be unfairly dis-tributed between forwarding nodes. Thus, nodes that are in part of the routing will beoverloaded while others are less used. Overloaded nodes increase the risk of conges-tion and queue overflow leading to data loss that reduces the throughput. Therefore,we need to couple the routing protocols with traffic load balancing scheme in hightraffic load network scenarios.The goal of this thesis is to propose an efficient routing solution to prevent con-gestion and queue overflow in high data rate convergecast WSNs, in such a way, tooptimize data delivery ratio at the sink node.On the one hand, we proposed a single channel traffic load balancing routingprotocol, named S-CoLBA (Single channel Collaborative Load balancing routing).It relies on data queueing delay metric and best score (according to the value of themetric) next hop neighbors to fairly distribute traffic load in per hop basis in the net-work. Since the carried traffic load increases in multichannel communication, onthe other hand, we adapted our contribution to cope with multichannel WSNs andwe named it as Multichannel CoLBA (M-CoLBA). As broadcasting information isnot straightforward in multichannel, we optimize M-CoLBA to use piggybackingscheme for routing information sharing in the network. This enhanced version iscalled ABORt for Acknowledgement-Based opportunistic Routing protocol and re-lies on ACK frames to share routing information. Doing so helps to optimize dataframe end-to-end delay and to reduce the transmitted beacons in the network. ABORtfairly distributes traffic load in the network and avoids congestion and queue over-flow.We evaluated the performance of our contributions in both simulation using Con-tiki OS Cooja simulator and experiment (only for S-CoLBA) on TelosB motes. Ob-tained results in both simulation and experiment confirm the efficiency of our routingprotocols in term of packet delivery ratio and queue overflow compared to some ex-isting routing protocols in the literature.
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Hamadoun Tall. Load balancing in multichannel data collection wireless sensor networks. Networking and Internet Architecture [cs.NI]. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC006⟩. ⟨tel-01919347⟩

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