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Theses

Perception du gras : variabilité interindividuelle et origine

Abstract : To reduce the fat content in food products as recommended by the National Nutrition and Health Plan, it is necessary to understand the fat perception mechanisms. In this context, this thesis work aimed to contribute to the understanding of fat perception through the study of interindividual variability in fat perception and the research of its origin.For this purpose, a multidisciplinary approach combining physico-chemistry of “fatty” aroma molecules, subjects’ oral physiology, food oral processing and sensory perception during food consumption has been established. A particular focus has been done on the olfactory component of fat perception, especially on the potential contribution of the metabolites produced in the human nasal cavity from odorous volatile compounds.This work shows that reducing fat content in cottage cheese decreases the perception of the cream aroma, increases bitterness and astringency and decreases the perceived greasy film. The results confirmed the multidimensional nature of fat perception. This work also shows that fat perception is related to the lipid content of the mouth coating as well as the aroma compounds composition of the food matrix.It highlights three groups of subjects with significant difference in fat sensitivity. These groups also differ in several physiological and anatomical parameters which can impact tactile, taste and smell sensations and therefore potentially fat perception. Finally, this work proves the existence in the human olfactory mucosa of enzymes capable of metabolizing odorous compounds into volatile metabolites. These metabolites proved to be themselves odorants could be involved in fat perception or its modulation.
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Rachel Schoumacker. Perception du gras : variabilité interindividuelle et origine. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Bourgogne, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DIJOS030⟩. ⟨tel-01918836⟩

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