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Rôle des calpaïnes dans le vieillissement et la réponse anti-tumorale

Abstract : Calpain 1 and 2 are cysteine proteases and calpastatin is their natural inhibitor. Calpains and calpastatin are ubiquitous. Calpains are involved in inflammatory response development via activation by partial proteolysis of several substrates (NF-kappaB activation by I-kappaBalpha cleavage, remodeling of inflammatory cells cytoskeleton, cleavage of chaperone protein HSP90 ... ). It has been previously shown that calpains promote neuronal aging. We have shown in a mouse model that inhibition of calpain by calpastatin overexpression limits renal and vascular aging. The inflammation associated with aging or "inflammaging" is considerably reduced by specific inhibition of calpain. This is due, at least in part, to calpain effect on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in maturation of interleukin-1 alpha. If intracellular calpains are pro-inflammatory, secreted calpains have an anti-inflammatory effect via cleavage of TLR2. Calpains can indeed be excreted out of the cells via the transporter ABCA1. In the context of a mouse model of melanoma, we have shown that inhibition of extracellular calpain by only extracellular calpastatin overexpression preserves TLR2 and thus limit the progression of the tumor.Calpains intra- and extracellular are major mediators of inflammatory response and modulate the "inflammaging" and the anti-tumor immune response.
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Guillaume Hanouna. Rôle des calpaïnes dans le vieillissement et la réponse anti-tumorale. Physiologie [q-bio.TO]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066385⟩. ⟨tel-01918183⟩

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