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Étude du rôle de l’Optineurine dans l’axe de signalisation HACE1/Rac1 et la transformation tumorale

Abstract : We have established a novel regulatory mechanism that restricts Rac1 activity through ubiquitylation and targeting to the proteasome of the active form of the GTPase for degradation and signal termination. This regulation is dominant over the classical GEF/GAP cycle of regulation. We identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3L) HACE1 as the main enzyme that catalyzes Rac1 ubiquitylation. HACE1 is a major tumor suppressor that limits Rac-dependent NADPH oxidase complex activity, S phase entry, cell migration, mammary cell transformation and tumor growth in animal models. In order to determine how HACE1 activity is controlled, we conducted a whole genome two-hybrid screen and identified Optineurin (OPTN) as a primary partner of the E3L HACE1. We report that OPTN is a new Extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness sensor that activates HACE1 E3L activity. OPTN controls adhesion-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome degradation of Rac1 to tune Rac1 signaling with tissue stiffness. Loss of OPTN is associated with a gain of cell-ECM adhesive properties and enhanced integrin-mediated proliferative signaling and metabolic activity. Interestingly, cells that loose OPTN display atypical mechanical properties and apparent uncoupling of Focal Adhesions growth from acto-myosin contractile activity. Together, our findings establish the first link between the Rac1 ubiquitylation pathway and ECM compliance sensing and define OPTN as a previously unknown mechanical sensor. OPTN and HACE1 would then act as a tumor-suppressor complex that adapts cell proliferative response to ECM mechanical properties in order to insure both Tensional integrity and Redox homeostasis of cells
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Daniel Hamaoui. Étude du rôle de l’Optineurine dans l’axe de signalisation HACE1/Rac1 et la transformation tumorale. Sciences agricoles. Université Côte d'Azur, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016AZUR4092⟩. ⟨tel-01916972⟩

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