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Applications of limits of combinatorial structures in geometry and graph theory

Rémi de Joannis de Verclos 1
1 G-SCOP_OC [2016-2019] - Optimisation Combinatoire [2016-2019]
G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production
Abstract : This thesis is focused on problems related to the theory of combinatorial limits.This theory opened links between different fields such asanalysis, combinatorics, geometry and probability theory.In this thesis, we apply ideas coming from this framework toproblems in extremal combinatorics.In a first chapter we develop a theory of limits for emph{order types},a geometrical object that encodes configuration of a set of points in theplane by the mean of the orientations of their triangles.The order type of a point set suffices to determine many of its properties,such as for instance the boundary of its convex hull.We show that the limit of a converging sequence of order typescan be represented by random-free object analogous to a graphon.Further, we link this notion to the natural distributions of order typesarising from the sampling of random points from some probability measureof the plane.We observe that in this mean, every probability measure gives rise to a limitof order types.We show that this map from probability measure on the plane to limit oforder type is not surjective.Concerning its injectivity,we prove that if a measure has large enough support, for instance if its supportcontains an open ball, the limit of order types the measure generatessuffices to essentially determine this measure.A second chapter is focused on property testing.A tester is a randomized algorithm for distinguishing between objects satisfyinga property from those that are at some distance at least εfrom having itby means of the edition distance.This gives very efficient algorithms, and in particular algorithms whosecomplexity does not depend on the size of the input but only on the parameter ε.For graphs, it has been shown by Alon and Shapira that every hereditary propertyhas such a tester.We contribute to the following question :which classes of graphs have a one-sided property tester with a number of queries that is a polynomial in 1/ε ?We give a proof that the class of interval graphs has such a tester.The theory of flag algebras is a framework introduced by Razborovclosely related to dense limit of graphs, that gives a way to systematicallyderive bounds for parameters in extremal combinatorics.In a third chapter we present a program developed during my Phd.that implements this method.This program works as a library that can compute flag algebras,manipulate inequalities on densities and encode the optimization of some parameterin a semi-definite positive instance that can be given to a dedicated solverto obtain a bound on this parameter.This program is in particular used to obtain a new bound forthe triangle case of the Caccetta-Häggkvist conjecture.
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Rémi de Joannis de Verclos. Applications of limits of combinatorial structures in geometry and graph theory. Computer Arithmetic. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAM037⟩. ⟨tel-01916063⟩

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