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Neuroinflammation & Insulinorésistance : contribution au développement physiopathologique de la maladie d’Alzheimer

Abstract : Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular amyloid deposits and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, made of aggregated and abnormally hyperphosphorylated Tau proteins. Other components are also involved in AD pathophysiology, including chronic neuroinflammation and central insulinoresistance that would contribute both to the development of Alzheimer lesions as well as associated synaptic and memory impairments.Neuroinflammation observed in AD is characterized by glial cell activation, lymphocyte infiltration, and the release of soluble inflammatory mediators including chemokines. CCL3 is a highly upregulated chemokine in the brain of AD patients. In our lab, we have shown, in a mouse model of Tau pathology, that hippocampal CCL3 was largely upregulated and, thus, we made the assumptions that such increase could play a key-role in the memory dysfunctions associated with Tau pathology. To address to this question, we precisely evaluated the impact of CCL3 upon hippocampal synaptic activity and memory function. Our data show that CCL3 application on hippocampal slices induces a significant decrease of basal synaptic activity and long term potentiation (LTP) impairment without affecting presynaptic activity and long term depression (LTD). Further, intracerebral elevation of CCL3 by sub-chronical intracerebroventricular injections was also found to impact hippocampal basal synaptic activity and LTP but also short term spatial memory and long term memory. Reversion of these alterations by Maraviroc finally suggests that CCL3 deleterious effects are CCR5 dependent. Overall, these studies show the important role of CCL3 towards plasticity and memory as well as in AD physiopathology.Besides chronic inflammation, insulinoresistance observed in AD brain is suggested to favor the development of amyloid and Tau lesions but also to participate to synaptic impairments underlying memory loss. However, origins of the brain insulinoresistance described in AD are unclear. Previous studies ascribed central insulin-resistance to Aβ oligomers, type II diabetes or even neuroinflammation. So far, no relationship has been established with Tau protein. The aim of the second part of the present thesis was evaluate the potential role of Tau protein towards the regulation of central insulin sensitivity. Various experiments performed in vitro and in vivo show that Tau favors the neuronal response to insulin, whereas Tau deletion favors insulin-resistance. This regulation seems to be related to an interaction between Tau and PTEN, a phospholipase inhibiting insulin signaling, which results in a reduced PTEN activity, itself favoring insulin pathway activation. Regulation of brain insulin signaling is known to modulate energy homeostasis, food intake and weight gain. In line with the idea that Tau protein modulates insulin signaling, we found that Tau deletion induces weight gain, hyperinsulinemia and glucointolerance. Together, these data provide a new function for Tau in the control of neuronal signaling and peripheral metabolism. These data also highlight that the loss of Tau function in AD might explain at last in part the central insulinoresistance described as “type 3 diabetes”.In conclusion, our data highlight two mechanisms linking Tau pathology and memory deficits, one through the detrimental effect of the chemokine CCL3 and the other involving neuronal insulin resistance.
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Elodie Marciniak. Neuroinflammation & Insulinorésistance : contribution au développement physiopathologique de la maladie d’Alzheimer. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LIL2S036⟩. ⟨tel-01914964⟩

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