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Vivere civile : ordres, armes et religion chez Machiavel

Abstract : The ancient Rome, both in the epochs of kings and of the Republic, is a good model of government in the thought of Machiavelli. In the interpretation of Roman political history, this model is frequently referred to as vivere civile or vivere libero. What exactly is the vivere civile according to Machiavelli? According to the responses of the Cambridge School researchers, the vivere civile would be a republic conceived of as a "structure of virtue", namely the institutionalization of the civic virtù that promots the virtù of the citizens (J.G.A. Pocock), or the name of any republican regime characterized by its independence from the external world and by the self-governance of its citizens (Quentin Skinner); and they believe that the vivere civile is equivalent to the republican regime. Conversely, we argue that the vivere civile is conceived of as, above all, in opposition to the tyranny, a good form of political community governed by laws and ordini, which can be realized not only in a republic but also in a monarchy. Besides, the vivere civile is based on three interdependent cornerstones: the whole of the laws and the ordini, the arms, and the religion, which are conceived together in the framework of a conquering republic. Our issue includes a set of questions: compared to the tradition, what is the particularity of the Machiavellian idea of the vivere civile ? What is the nature and content of the justice in the Machiavellian vivere civile ? Why is an “expansionist” republic (namely a republic that wants to expand by military conquests) superior to a “conservative” republic (that is content with its territory and does not seek to expand) ? Why is it necessary to keep one's own citizens armed in an expansionist republic? What role does the religion play in the vivere civile ? How to remedy the corruption of the vivere civile ? etc. These questions, however, are more complicated than they might seem and deserve more attention. Various works that are published in recent years have presented the legal, military and religious aspects of the Machiavellian vivere civile from several new perspectives. The thesis therefore aims to present a synthesis of Machiavellian thought through the prism of the question of vivere civile.
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Xin Zhu. Vivere civile : ordres, armes et religion chez Machiavel. Philosophie. Université de Lyon; East China normal university (Shanghai), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSEN043⟩. ⟨tel-01914275⟩

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