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Le droit à un environnement sain en droit européen

Abstract : The subject of this study focuses exclusively on the right to a healthy environment in European law as it is defined by the two major European legal systems which constitute this right: Council of Europe and European Union. It seems fundamental to understand how these two complementary but also competing legal orders can be seized in a similar way or, on the contrary, significantly different from the great challenge of the right to a healthy environment. The choice to study the right to an environment in a European context is justified by the special approach offered by European law as a field of analysis. Indeed, the two organizations and their respective legal orders, the European Union and the Council of Europe, are two systems that work differently, which are driven by singular objectives but which do not exclude certain reconciliations. Thus the right to a healthy environment in Europe is most often apprehended from two different approaches. On the one hand, the "droit de l’hommiste" angle, very much favored by the Council of Europe, which claims its pioneering role in the protection of human rights, democracy and the rule of law . On the other hand, the European Union, first conceived as an Economic Union and an organization that remains fundamentally driven by economic objectives. Of course, the EU also defends and protects human rights. But the healthy environment or the high level of environmental protection that is its corollary is more frequently confronted with fundamental freedoms guaranteed by the EU, in particular freedom of movement within the framework of the internal market. This balance between the human right approach and the internal market approach is very specific to EU law. European law will be studied in a systemic approach: process of norm production. This specificity of European law to the healthy environment and its dynamics deserve to be apprehended both from the point of view of the recognition of right and its implementation, which we will see that it is animated by springs specific to each of organizations, but which are not necessarily exclusive of each other.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 6, 2018 - 4:30:06 PM
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Rahma Bentirou Mathlouthi. Le droit à un environnement sain en droit européen. Droit. Université de Neuchâtel (Suisse). Faculté de droit, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAD001⟩. ⟨tel-01914085⟩

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