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Optimisation et évaluation de la perfusion cérébrale par technique de marquage de spin dans la Maladie d'Alzheimer à début précoce

Abstract : The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients under the age of 65 years, called early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), remains a challenging issue due to the high incidence of atypical clinical presentations with non-memory symptoms. Although EAOD has been widely explored by structural and functional imaging, no previous study has examined the contribution of ASL in the assessment of cortical perfusion in this disease. Indeed, the analysis of ASL remains complex, especially at the individual level, due to the weak signal-to-noise ratio of the perfusion maps and the heterogeneity of pathological areas in the initial phase of the disease. Our first objective was technical and has consisted in optimizing the visual interpretation of ASL maps by the cortical surface-based projection of the perfusion alterations on the structural T1 sequence acquired during the same imaging protocol, providing a 3D interactive display of the perfusion data. Data processing included several successive steps, such as a partial volume effect correction, a specific intensity normalization and a surface-based smoothing process. It was applied on the perfusion maps of eighteen EOAD patients and the quality of segmentation and of cortical surface-based perfusion maps were scored as optimal in 72% in both cases by two readers. Our second objective was clinical and aimed to characterize the cerebral hypoperfusion and hypometabolism by ASL and 18F-FDG-PET in a group of 37 EOAD patients. Our preliminary study showed: (i) a similar pathological pattern located in the inferior parietal lobules and in the temporal cortex, (ii) discrepancies between the two modalities with the presence of more widespread hypometabolic regions detected by 18F-FDGPET and additionnai areas of alterations in the frontal lobes detected by ASL without apparent hypometabolism. Our studies suggest that ASL may become a useful complementary tool which, in combination with the existing structural and functional techniques, could offer improved efficiency in the difficult early detection of EOAD and AD. Its use in clinical practice, however, requires an optimization of its visual representation, and the cortical surface-based projection applied in this work represents one of the potential ways to this image quality improvement.
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Sébastien Verclytte. Optimisation et évaluation de la perfusion cérébrale par technique de marquage de spin dans la Maladie d'Alzheimer à début précoce. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LIL2S029⟩. ⟨tel-01913944⟩

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