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Déploiement de l’agriculture biologique à l’échelle du paysage : impacts sur les communautés d’ennemis naturels et les services de régulation des bioagresseurs

Abstract : Identifying landscape context and farming systems that enhance natural pest control while maintaining biodiversity is crucial to design functional agricultural landscapes. Using a meta-analysis and an empiric study based on 42 vineyards in Nouvelle Aquitaine (France), we investigated the effect of the deployment of organic farming at a landscape scale on 1) natural enemy communities, 2) natural pest control and 3) pest infestation levels. Here, we showed that the proportion of organic farming structured more natural enemy communities than the proportion of semi-natural habitats. On the opposite, pest and pathogen infestations were never influenced by the proportion of organic farming while they were negatively influenced by the proportion of semi-natural habitats. Furthermore, at a global scale and for every crop types, organic farming, per se, enhances natural pest control. In viticulture, it is less dependent of synthetic agrochemicals than conventional farming. Moreover, local factors such as the treatment frequency index, the field age and the crop productivity had important effects on natural enemy communities and natural pest control. Finally, we yielded knowledge on processes that impact natural enemy assembly and natural pest control in agrosystems. For vineyards-dominated landscapes, our work suggests some tracks for landscape planning that support biodiversity conservation and natural pest control.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 2, 2018 - 2:14:08 PM
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Lucile Muneret. Déploiement de l’agriculture biologique à l’échelle du paysage : impacts sur les communautés d’ennemis naturels et les services de régulation des bioagresseurs. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0031⟩. ⟨tel-01911165⟩

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