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Modélisation par éléments finis des effets des médicaments sur la résistance de l’os

Abstract : The osteo-articular system plays the role of crucial support for the whole human body. It supports the gravity forces as well as the efforts generated by daily activities. Thus the bone optimizes and adapts its mass and its geometry through the process of bone remodeling. This spatio temporal regulation can undergo metabolic imbalances such as osteoporosis which lead to the occurrence of the upper end of the femur fracture during a fall side or various traumas. In fact, osteoporosis is reflected into a decrease in bone density and level of damage at the level of the microarchitecture of bone tissue increasing therefore the risk of fractures. In the framework of this thesis, a mechanical modelling of the behaviour of the os as well as a biological modelling of cellular activities were firstly proposed. Secondly, the pharmacokinetics of four drugs were modeled which are Alendronate, Denosumab, the Romosozumaband the Odanacatib. Finally, the coupling of these models allowed us to have a mechanic-biological model coupled with the effects of drugs against osteoporosis that can predict the evolution of bone mineral density and of damage by fatigue allowing to analyze the evolution of the bone quality. This model has been implemented by finite elements ABAQUS/standard through its user routine UMAT.The model has been applied to simulate different scenarios of remodeling on human femurs (2D and3D). Different factors were analysed such as the range of physical activities, the doses of injected drugs,the duration of treatment, etc. Obtained results are consistent (qualitatively) with existing clinical studies.As a conclusion, the mechanic-biological model coupled with the effects of the proposed drugs contributes to the fine analysis of the bone behaviour and the application of algorithms allowed to conduct virtual tests in order to analyze the combined effects of many multidisciplinary factors characterizing the bone quality.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 31, 2018 - 2:52:08 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01909936, version 1


Mohamed Hafedh Boughattas. Modélisation par éléments finis des effets des médicaments sur la résistance de l’os. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Orléans, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ORLE2048⟩. ⟨tel-01909936⟩



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