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Reconstitution des paléotempératures holocènes de la forêt boréale coniférienne de l'ouest du Québec basée sur une approche multi-indicateurs

Abstract : A future warmer global climate with more severe annual drought has been predicted, especially for the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Such an environmental change would be marked by higher frequencies and intensities of natural disturbances, which could threaten the integrity of some boreal forest ecosystems. One of the foreseeable consequences would be a significant increase in the occurrence of wildfires, which is already the major disruptive element of these ecosystems. The future of boreal ecosystems thus raises many questions and uncertainties, highlighting the need for a good characterization of spatio-temporal climate changes and its consequences on these ecosystems.In order to maintain these forest landscapes within the limits of their natural variability, the Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec (MFFP) proposes, in a context of sustainable ecosystem management, to establish a registry of reference states. In this perspective, the research objective of this thesis was to produce the most possible robust reconstructions of Holocene temperatures within the spruce-moss forest of western Québec. The research focused on a multi-indicator approach including Chironomidae and pollen deposited in the sediments of two selected lakes.The results highlight the relevance of Chironomidae head capsules to reconstruct at high temporal resolution the August Holocene temperatures from Lac Aurélie using two Transfer Functions (TF). The East Canadian TF was more in agreement with the regional signal than the Canadian TF. In addition, chironomid assemblages from Lac Lili gave an overestimated paleotemperature reconstruction due to the specific shallowness of this lake. Finally, the combined quantitative reconstruction (Chironomidae and pollen) of the August palaeotemperatures suggested three distinct periods: (i) 8500-4500 years BP, identified as the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) during which the August temperatures are warmer than modern temperatures; (ii) 4500-1000 cal BP, marked by the beginning of the cold Neoglacial period, where the temperatures oscillate around the current values and (iii) the last 1000 cal BP, characterized by a general decrease of the temperatures. Several short climatic events were also identified for each period: (i) the 8200 cal BP cold event; (ii) the 4200 cal BP warm event; (iii) the Roman Warm Period (RWP, 1900-1700 cal BP); (iv) the Dark Age Cold Period (DACP, 1700-1500 cal BP); (v) Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 1100 cal BP) and (vi) the Little Ice Age (LIA, 500-250 cal BP). A series of cold events is also observed around 5900, 4300, 2800 and 400 cal BP, probably corresponding to the "Bond" events. The observed duration and amplitude of climate events are consistent with regional, North American records, and more widely those of the Northern Hemisphere. In addition, the synthesis highlighting climate-vegetation-fire relationships confirms the influence of climatic instability on changes in fire regimes mainly driven by seasonal variations in rainfall and frequency of drought events. However, our paleotemperatures combined reconstitution indicated that large fires coincide with the occasional event of 4200 cal BP and those occurring from 2000 cal BP onwards (RWP, DACP, MCA and LIA). Summer temperatures combined with other climatic variables (summer drought, summer insolation, and annual precipitation) play an important role in the variation of the fire regime in western Québec.
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Lisa Bajolle. Reconstitution des paléotempératures holocènes de la forêt boréale coniférienne de l'ouest du Québec basée sur une approche multi-indicateurs. Milieux et Changements globaux. Université Montpellier; Université du Québec à Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTG026⟩. ⟨tel-01908668⟩

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