Une ingénierie participative des exigences pour les systèmes interactifs complexes en aéronautique

Abstract : Requirements Engineering plays a crucial role in coordinating the different stakeholders needed for safe aeronautics systems engineering. The notion of requirement is a key concept in system definition and represents the cornerstone of communication among stakeholders: customer, user, systems engineers, suppliers. The certification process in critical systems requires traceability documents as a means of demonstrating safety, showing links between the several artifacts (high-level requirements, refined requirements, components and interfaces). We conducted a qualitative study, using interviews and mockups, with fifteen industrial practitioners from four aeronautics companies, to investigate which tasks are actually performed by requirements engineers and how current tools support these tasks. We found that RE-specific tools constrain engineers to a rigid workflow, which conflicts with the adaptive exploration of the problem. Engineers often start by using general-purpose tools to foster exploration and collaborative work with suppliers, at the expense of traceability. When engineers shift to requirements refinement and verification, they must use RE-specific tools to grant traceability. But the lack of tool usability yields significant time loss and dissatisfaction. Based on observed RE practices, we devise a situated vision of Requirements Engineering, rendering its role in between the operational context and the engineering context of the system. Based on scenarios and prototypes, we formulate usability insights for RE-specific tools. In particular, we propose interactive coordinated visualizations of structured text, allowing engineers to decorelate rigor from rigidity throughout the RE process, by providing flexibility during the process while gradually tackling approximation to the end of the process. The requirements engineer takes advantage of structured visualizations of requirements, from which he can communicate with stakeholders, search for text, get the progress status of requirements, detect and fill missing information thanks to interactive navigation and filtering. Beyond interactive tools supporting a situated vision of RE, we propose a new approach to RE: participatory requirements engineering (PRE). Its purpose is the production of mature requirements specifying in the future system the coverage of unforeseen situations in the current system, yet managed by users. The approach is based on the combined use of participatory design techniques to involve the users, with a continuous effort of abstraction and requirements statement to inform the system definition. We apply the approach on four projects in aeronautics: collaboration and air traffic control, cockpit of an electric training aircraft, analysis of accident report and new flight instrument. We present the engineering artifacts resulting from the application of the approach in order to evaluate its benefits.
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Hélène Gaspard-Boulinc. Une ingénierie participative des exigences pour les systèmes interactifs complexes en aéronautique. Interface homme-machine [cs.HC]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨tel-01902708⟩

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