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Elaboration et caractérisation de nanoparticules de protéines.

Abstract : Polydisperse fractal aggregates of varying average sizes were formed when solutions of whey protein isolate and soy protein isolate were heated at different protein concentrations and at neutral pH. The structure of these fractals aggregates solutions was analyzed by light scattering as a function of protein concentration. In dense suspension, the osmotic compressibility and the correlation length decreases with increasing concentration and become independent of the initial aggregate size. In this concentration regime, the aggregates are strongly interpenetrated and can be visualized as a set of "blobs". For a fixed aggregate size, the viscosity initially increases exponentially with increasing concentration and then diverges at the gel point. Larger fractal aggregates show a more important increase of the viscosity with increasing concentration than smaller aggregates, because they are less dense. The increase of the viscosity was much stronger for large fractal aggregates than for homogeneous microgels (microgels were formed by heating the WPI solution in present of CaCl2) of the same size.Dynamic light scattering, rheology and FRAP measurements were performed to investigate mixtures of different type of aggregates of WPI (fractals/fractals, fractals/microgels) and fractals of mixtures of WPI and SPI. Flow measurements were used to characterise the rheological properties of the aggregate suspension whereas Fluorescence recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) was used to determine the self diffusion of fluorophore-labelled dextrans chains in mixtures over a wide range of concentrations. The results were compared to the concentration dependence of zero shear viscosity, gel stiffness, osmotic compressibility and correlation length. Brownian diffusion of the dextran chains was observed in aggregate suspensions and weak gels formed just above the gel point with a diffusion coefficient that decreased with increasing concentration, but the dependence was weaker than that of the viscosity. At higher concentrations, densely crosslinked gels were formed, which induced a sharp decrease in the mobility of the dextran chains. For these systems, the recovery of fluorescence was logarithmic over time, suggesting an exponential distribution of diffusion coefficients.
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Walailuk Inthavong. Elaboration et caractérisation de nanoparticules de protéines.. Chimie-Physique [physics.chem-ph]. Université du Maine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LEMA1014⟩. ⟨tel-01902528⟩

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