La structure de la philosophie de Socrate selon Platon

Abstract : According to Plata, the philosophy of Socrates is structured around six terms: Form, soul, ignorance, knowledge, virtue, and dialectics. The soul, which is immortal, is the source of all goods and all evils, since it is the principle of spontaneous movement, and consequently the first cause of all movements, whether intellective, sensitive, or physical. Therefore, to make the city and its citizens just means, above all, making their soul just. Yet how can a soul be made better if one does not know the very cause of what is good and what is bad? ln the first dialogues, Socrates philosophizes against ignorance as the cause of vice, which deprives the soul of virtue. ln the late dialogues, Socrates philosophizes in favor of knowledge, that is, the knowledge of that which is, which is the very source of virtue. Yet how can one know that which is, if reality or being never cease changing? Hence the need for the existence of intelligible realities that are universal and immutable, in which sensible realities, which are particular and changing, participate. A question arises: if refutation is the means of revealing ignorance through dialogue, what is the means for knowing that which is? The answer is dialectic, which, through dialogue, allows one to recall the genuine realities which the soul once contemplated.
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Jacques Han. La structure de la philosophie de Socrate selon Platon. Philosophie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PA01H205⟩. ⟨tel-01902102⟩

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