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Qualité de l'air dans la Vallée de l'Arve : météorologie locale et mesures des réductions des émissions liées au chauffage au bois

Abstract : Biomass burning, particularly residential wood burning, is a source of atmospheric particles that contributes significantly to winter PM10 levels globally in Europe. In order to reduce emissions from this source, a large-scale program for the renewal of non-efficient wood-burning appliances, the “Fonds Air Bois” has been launched since 2013 in the Arve Valley. The assessment of its impact on atmospheric concentrations is an issue for future air quality management policies. The research DECOMBIO program (2013-2018) has been proposed to evaluate the impact of this operation on PM10 concentrations from measurements. This DECOMBIO program, which includes these thesis works, was based on the confrontation during 4 winters of continuous measurements of PM10 resulting from biomass burning (noted PM10wb), weather conditions, and emissions variations related to appliances renewal. To answer this challenge, the aim of this thesis was to develop methods to take into account the influence of atmospheric conditions on winter PM10 concentrations and to evaluate the parameters and uncertainties that make it possible to compare the estimated PM10wb emission variations with those of the measured PM10wb concentrations during the 4 winters.This work was based on large datasets of chemical and meteorological measurements made during 4 winters (13-14 to 16-17) at 3 sites in the Arve Valley. In addition, the technical data from wood appliances renewal files was provided to us, allowing us to spatially and temporally estimated reductions of PM10wb emissions from these appliances replacements. The state of atmospheric stability, an essential parameter for determining episodes of temperature inversions, has been continuously monitored thanks to an inexpensive system of sheltered temperature sensors installed along the slopes. These measurements have shown that local weather conditions in these valleys are the primary factor conditioning atmospheric concentrations. An automatic weather types classification has been established, making it possible to overcome this variability and to compare the concentrations for similar atmospheric conditions between the different winters. The innovation of this approach is mainly based on taking into account the degree of influence of meteorological variables and parameters related to the intensity of emissions. A gradual decrease of PM10wb concentrations during winters was thus observed at the 3 sites for certain weather types, a result consolidated by the concomitant decrease in tracer biomass combustion at the mass of PM10. To clarify these results, we were interested in estimating the reduction of PM10 emissions from device replacements at measurement sites and their uncertainties.At the end of this work and of the DECOMBIO program, we have been able to develop and validate several methodological tools applicable in the evaluation of future “fonds air bois” (use of sensors along the slopes, meteorological classification adapted to the quality of the air, estimation of uncertainties on wood appliances renewable emissions). This solid foundation has allowed us to better understand the measurements made on atmospheric PM, and their relationship to emission estimates.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01901636
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 23, 2018 - 10:09:06 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 20, 2020 - 10:51:17 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01901636, version 1

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Julie Allard. Qualité de l'air dans la Vallée de l'Arve : météorologie locale et mesures des réductions des émissions liées au chauffage au bois. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAU020⟩. ⟨tel-01901636⟩

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